Uti Diagnosis And Localization
The gold standard for UTI diagnosis is urine culture. Ideally, all patients with a suspected UTI should have a urine sample collected via cystocentesis and evaluated by aerobic culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The techniques used to determine antibiotic susceptibility are disk diffusion and serial antibiotic dilution. The preferred method is serial antimicrobial dilution, which provides the minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic, whereas disk diffusion is considered less reliable and does not provide MICs.
Efforts should be made to identify where the UTI is located within the urinary tract.3,4 Although locations may overlap, UTIs can occur within the bladder , kidney , and/or prostate . Localization is not always straightforward and is best achieved by evaluating the clinical history, presenting signs, physical examination findings, and laboratory and imaging results.
Symptoms Of Bladder Infection In Dogs
Dogs with UTIs experience mild to severe symptoms depending on the cause. The following is a list of symptoms often seen with UTIs in dogs:
- Urinating more often, having urine accidents inside the house
- Urine has an unusually strong odor
- Increased licking of the penis or vulva
- Irritation or infection of the skin around the vulva or penis
- Drinking more water than usual
Does My Dog Have An Inherited Urinary Disease
Some inherited diseases can cause chronic urinary problems in dogs and you can test your dog to see if hes at risk. EasyDNA has an at-home DNA test kit that you can give your dog, mail it in, and get results in just a few weeks. Diseases tested for include:
- Hyperuricosuria: a genetic disorder that involves elevated levels of uric acid in the urine, which can cause the formation of stones in their bladders and sometimes kidneys. This EasyDNA test is available for all dog breeds.
- Cystinuria: another autosomal recessive disorder that causes the kidneys to fail to reabsorb amino acids . This can lead to the formation of cystine crystals and stones in the urinary tract, leading to possible blockage of the urethra. This EasyDNA test is available for Labrador Retrievers and Newfoundlands.
You May Like: Mexican Antibiotics For Tooth Infection
When To See A Vet
At the first signs of a UTI in your dog, we suggest that you have your dog’s urine tested at your vets.
They can confirm the diagnosis and you can then take action knowing what you are dealing with.
Indeed, these symptoms may indicate a bacterial urinary tract infection, but they may also suggest an onset of kidney disease/infection or the presence of crystals or stones in the bladder.
Often, we notice the first signs of an infection only when it is well-established, since our dogs are good at hiding things! If your dog has a more advanced bacterial infection, it may need antibiotic treatment prescribed by a vet.
Read further to learn about the natural solutions to this uncomfortable condition.
Antibiotics Often Used To Treat Infections In Dogs
It is quite common for dogs to suffer from bacterial infections and diseases. For common bacterial illnesses, the treatment usually involves bacteriostatic antibiotics or bactericidal antibiotics depending on the condition. The bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit the growth of bacteria to multiply through prevention, while the bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria. These antibiotics are available in capsules, chewable tablets, ointments, and liquids, and it is important for you as a dog owner to be informed about these antibiotics and how they can affect your pet.
How Vets Diagnose Utis In Dogs
There are many ways to tell if a dog has a UTI and to investigate the underlying causes for why an infection occurred in the first place. Its important to obtain a definitive diagnosis whenever there is evidence of urinary tract disease, or else UTIs may come back.
Here are the ways that veterinarians test for UTIs in dogs.
What Should I Do If I Think My Dog Has Lower Urinary Tract Problems
Pay attention to your dogs behavior, because its not easy to spot all your dogs symptoms.
If you notice symptoms of pain and discomfort, especially difficulty urinating, call your dogs vet to figure out whats causing the problems and the best way to treat them.
American Kennel Club: Does Your Dog Have UTI Symptoms or Something Worse?, Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs.
Banfield Pet Hospital: Lower Urinary Tract Disease .
Canine Health Foundation: Canine Lymphoma.
Merck Manual Veterinary Manual: Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections.
MSPCA-Angell: “Lower Urinary Tract Diseases of the Senior Dog.”
Peoria Area Veterinary Group: Urinary Tract Problems in Dogs.
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira: Analysis of lower urinary tract disease of dogs.
VCA Hospitals: Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs.
Don’t Miss: Antibiotics Commonly Prescribed For Uti
Diagnosing A Uti In Dogs
If you suspect that your dog has a bladder infection, she should see a vet right away. The vet will ask you questions about your dogs symptoms and history and do a thorough physical exam. A urine sample will be collected, and a complete urinalysis will show if there is blood, bacteria, or crystals in the urine. Often, a urine culture and sensitivity test is needed to help determine which antibiotics will be most effective against the specific bacteria.
In more serious cases, blood work, x-rays, and ultrasound tests are needed to see if any underlying conditions need to be treated. These may include diabetes, bladder stones, kidney disease, cancer, and more.
Clavacillin For Uti In Dogs
How Clavacillin Tablets help to treat UTI in Dogs? According to a study, about 14% of dogs develop a UTI at once in their whole life. Today, in the following article, I would talk about all medicines used to treat urinary tract infection in canine and feline. UTI is a chronic disease usually caused by bacteria and may be dangerous for your pet’s life, if untreated.
|Clavacillin for Dogs UTI|
Also Check: What Probiotic Should You Take With Antibiotics
How Is A Bacterial Uti Prevented
In most instances nothing specific can be done to prevent a UTI from occurring. Your dog or cat should be re-evaluated if clinical signs recur. With complicated UTI, your veterinarian should periodically evaluate your pet to make sure that the UTI has not recurred or is under control. In some animals, a urinary antiseptic or an antibiotic must be given long term to prophylactically prevent a UTI from occurring. If prophylactic antibiotic treatment is necessary, a low dose of the antibiotic is usually given to your dog or cat once a day at nighttime so that the antibiotic that is passed into the urine is allowed to concentrate in the urinary bladder.
Client handout reference from Ettinger: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 7th Edition.
Age And Sex Of The Patients
Information about the age and gender of the patient was available for 152 of 171 samples from cats and 586 of 637 samples from dogs. Age and gender distributions are shown in Table . More than half of the samples from dogs and cats belonged to female dogs for cats this figure amounted to 10.4% .
|Number of samples|
- P Penicillin, AMP Ampicillin, AMC Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, CEF Cephalothin, CVN Cefovecin, TET Tetracycline, ENR Enrofloxacin, MAR Marbofloxacin, E Erythromycin, SXT Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
- Inferred resistance for certain antibiotics: Amoxicillin inferred from ampicillin, first-generation cephalosporins inferred from cephalothin, doxycycline inferred from tetracycline
- * Antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs
- â Antibiotics used second line for the treatment of UTIs, only where there is culture and sensitivity evidence that first-line drugs will not be effective
- â¡ Antibiotics not recommended for the treatment of UTIs
- Â§ n < â10
Read Also: Antibiotic Treatment For Abscess Tooth
Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infections In Dogs
Dog UTI symptoms result from inflammation and pain due to bacteria invading the bladder wall.
Signs of a UTI in dogs may include:
Straining to urinate with only a small amount of urine production
Blood in the urine
In more severe cases, where the infection moves into a dogs kidneys, you may see:
Urine Drug Concentration & Clinical Efficacy
Antimicrobial drugs must achieve an adequate urine concentration, which must be maintained for a sufficient time for a drug to be effective in treating UTI.16 It has been suggested that clinical efficacy is observed when the urine drug concentration is maintained at a concentration 4-fold higher than the isolates MIC throughout the time between doses.9
Experimental studies in rats have shown that the time for which the plasma drug concentration exceeds the isolates MIC correlates to the magnitude of bacterial colony count reduction the longer the time for which the drug concentration remained above the MIC, the lower the urine colony counts.12 Successful eradication of bacteria within the renal parenchyma or urinary bladder wall is correlated to the plasma, not urine, drug concentration.
When prescribing time-dependent antibiotics, shortening the interval between drug administration is the most effective method to allow the tissue/urine drug concentration to exceed the MIC for the majority of the dosing interval.
- Drug elimination follows first-order kinetics, where 50% of the drug is lost in 1 half-life.
- In contrast, doubling the dose would only add 1 half-life to the dosing interval.
- To add 2 half-lives to the dosing interval, the initial dose would have to be increased 4-fold. The peak serum drug concentration achieved by this approach may exceed the window of safety, producing adverse drug effects.
Don’t Miss: Can Genital Herpes Be Cured With Antibiotics
Treatment Options For Dogs With Urinary Tract Infections
Treatment for UTI focuses on managing pain, giving antibiotics for bacterial UTIs. If there is an underlying cause, this must be addressed as well. Dogs with a recessed vulva often benefit from surgery which helps correct this problem. Some dogs with bladder stones can be treated by changing the diet. This helps prevent the future formation of stones in the bladder. For more information on bladder stones, click here!
Talk to your vet about other or alternative treatments such as supplements and/or acupuncture. Cranberry juice has not been proven to help dogs with UTI, but it can be offered to dogs along with their normal bowl of fresh water. Its important to note that cranberry juice or cranberry supplements are thought to improve bladder health and decrease the recurrence of UTI, but they will not cure a current bladder infection.
Make sure that your dog finishes all medications as directed by your vet. If your dog stops eating, has vomiting or diarrhea, or worsening of UTI symptoms while on medication, call your vet right away.
Follow up with your vet to recheck your dogs urine sample once the medication is finished. This will help determine if the UTI has cleared up or if your dog needs to continue treatment.
How Are Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Infections Treated
Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are treated based on the culture and sensitivity results and the location and severity of infection. If the infection is life threatening, alternative and risky antibiotic treatments may be considered. In some cases, supportive care and treating the underlying condition that triggered the infection will resolve the infection without the use of riskier antibiotics. When antibiotics are prescribed, they must be taken on time and to completion exactly as prescribed.
When antibiotics are prescribed, they must be taken on time and to completion exactly as prescribed.
Probiotics are a supplement that may be recommended. Although some studies have shown promising results regarding the use of probiotics in treating and preventing antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, there has not been conclusive evidence. But, because using probiotics poses no risk to the dog, they may be added to the treatment plan.
Pet Insurance Can Help You And Your Pup
If youd rather leave UTI treatment to the experts especially if youre worried about your dog developing a bladder or urinary tract ailment, youre not alone. Bladder/urinary tract disease is one of the top 10 most vet-treated conditions for dogs,1,2 and continued treatment can hit your finances.
You may want to consider signing up for pet insurance as a proactive measure to lower your financial risk for potential health threats during your dogs lifetime. Why? Pet insurance is one of the best things you can do for your dog not only for the health of your pup, but to save you from financial trouble should an accident, illness, or pet emergency arise.
Humans have health insurance, so our furry friends should too. That way youll never have to choose between an expensive treatment and your pets suffering or even his life. Pet insurance gives you peace of mind, so you can make better and less emotional decisions in the face of a crisis.
Read about the best pet insurance providers to learn more.
Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections In Dogs
Approximately 27% of dogs will develop a urinary tract infection at some point in their life, with a large percentage of those being caused by a bacterial infection. However there are a number of other reasons why your dog may be suffering from the uncomfortable symptoms of a UTI including:
- Viral infection
You May Like: Fighting A Uti Without Antibiotics
What Can I Do To Prevent A Uti From Occurring In The Future
Your veterinarian will let you know if there is anything that can be done to prevent your dogs UTI from recurring. Often, a diet change may be recommended. They may also recommend some medications or supplements that can help to change the pH of the urine, making it harder for an infection to take hold. It is best to discuss UTI prevention with your veterinarian in order to put into place strategies that have been shown to be effective.Contributors: Malcolm Weir, DVM, MSc, MPH Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP, CRPP
Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections : Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment
A urinary tract infection usually refers to a bacterial infection of any or all parts of the urinary tract, but it most commonly involves the urinary bladder .
UTIs are common in dogs, especially females, but are uncommon in cats less than 10 years of age. However, cats older than 10 years of age have a higher risk for a UTI, which is often associated with other diseases .
Two things must occur for presentation of a bacterial UTI:
1. There must be a break, either temporary or permanent, in the animals defenses.2. Bacteria must migrate into the urinary tract, catch hold and multiply.
Also Check: Can Antibiotics Lower Your Immune System
Subclinical Bacteriuriato Treat Or Not To Treat
The limited studies performed in veterinary medicine have not shown that subclinical bacteriuria results in complications.8 However, human medicine has shown that more complications may arise when this condition is treated with antibiotics than when it is not. For veterinary patients with subclinical bacteriuria, no therapy is recommended. Neither the presence of antibiotic or multidrug resistance nor pyuria should prompt therapy. The number of bacteria obtained on culture and the presence of pyuria and hematuria cannot be used to differentiate subclinical bacteriuria from cystitis. Patients with systemic disease do not require drug therapy unless they have clinical signs suggestive of UTI. To help prevent struvite stone formation, antibiotic therapy may be considered for patients with subclinical bacteriuria caused by urease-producing bacteria .
Dosage Regimens For Uti:
Currently, the duration of therapy for UTI is controversial. Although animals are routinely treated with antimicrobial drugs for 1014 days, shorter duration antimicrobial regimens are routinely prescribed in human patients, including single-dose fluoroquinolone therapy. A clinical comparison of 3 days of therapy with a once-daily high dose of enrofloxacin with 2 wk of twice daily amoxicillin-clavulanic acid showed equivalence in the treatment of simple UTI in dogs. However, further studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage regimens for different classes of antimicrobials, and it is inappropriate to use fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy for simple UTIs. Animals with complicated UTI may require longer courses of therapy, and underlying pathology must be addressed. Chronic complicated cases of UTI, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis may require antimicrobial treatment for 46 wk, with the risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistance. A follow-up urine culture should be performed after 47 days of therapy to determine efficacy. If the same or a different pathogen is seen, then an alternative therapy should be chosen and the culture repeated again after 47 days. Urine should also be cultured 710 days after completing antimicrobial therapy to determine whether the UTI has resolved or recurred.
Don’t Miss: Antibiotics For Gum Disease Treatment
Changes In Urination Habits
Like it or not, most of us are attuned to our dogs elimination habits. Many of us have been caught in the act of examining our dogs poop by non-dog owners, and the same goes for urination. This attention to detail is more than just excessive caring it can help your veterinarian diagnose a medical condition before it gets out of hand.
Changes in your dogs urination habits always necessitate a visit to your veterinarian. While accidents in the house could be a behavioral issue, they could also be a sign of a serious medical condition. Accidents or increased frequency in urination may be symptoms of diabetes, hypothyroidism, Cushings disease, cancer, trauma, or urinary tract infections, just to name a few possible conditions. Your vet my suggest certain supplements or medications.
Preventing Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
There are several ways of preventing urinary tract infections in dogs, including:
- Providing fresh drinking water a dog that drinks copious amounts of water is less likely to develop a UTI because it will urinate more frequently thus flushing the urinary tract.
- Make sure your dog makes frequent potty breaks dogs that do not eliminate urine regularly have a higher risk of developing a UTI.
- Supplement your dog with probiotics to ensure and encourage healthy bacteria growth.
- Keep the genital area clean it is important to maintain the urinary opening free from debris. This can be achieved with antibacterial wipes formulated for pets. In dogs with long coats that tangle in the anal area, trimming the coat short can improve the overall hygiene level.
- Have your dogs anatomical or functional abnormality surgically corrected in dogs with congenital abnormalities that can be fixed the sooner the correction is made the lesser chances of developing a UTI.
- Cranberry extract many holistic vets recommend using cranberry extracts to treat and prevent urinary tract infections in dogs. However, scientific data proving the cranberrys beneficial effect on this condition is scarce and most positive reports are anecdotal.
Recommended Reading: Is Bactrim A Good Antibiotic For Uti