Wednesday, July 24, 2024

Antibiotics Commonly Prescribed For Uti

Why Do Women Get Utis More Often Than Men

What are some common antibiotics used to treat UTIs?

Women are more susceptible to getting a UTI thanks to their anatomy. Their urethras are both closer to the rectum and shorter in length than mens urethras are theyre also near the vagina. In other words, womens bodies naturally present a convenient access point for the myriad bacteria that commonly cause UTIs.

What Other Antibiotics Are Used To Treat Uti

Other antibiotics used to treat UTI include:

  • Beta-lactams, including penicillins and cephalosporins . Many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs.
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination antibiotic . Many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs.
  • Fluoroquinolones . The risk of antibiotic resistance to this is developing. These should not be given to pregnant women or children.
  • Tetracyclines are used for Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infections. These should not be given to pregnant women or children.
  • Aminoglycosides are usually used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe UTIs.

Can Home Remedies Quickly Treat A Uti

As resistance to antibiotics is becoming more common, many people are looking for ways to avoid using them. While this can be a good thing in some cases, it can draw out your illness in other instances.

The most commonly asked about home remedy for UTIs is cranberry. Drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry tablets has been long-touted as a natural alternative for treating UTIs. The thought is that cranberry makes your urine more acidic which, in turn, kills the bacteria causing your infection.

Unfortunately, cranberry does not treat UTIs very well. On the flip side, though, it can be useful for helping to prevent infections if youre prone to them. This seems to also be the case for other acidic fruits like lemon. Just be sure if youre going to try this for preventing future UTIs that you drink unsweetened juice, as sugar actually helps bacteria to grow.

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What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti

Symptoms of a UTI can differ depending on what part of the urinary tract is infected.

A bladder infection usually causes symptoms that include the following:

  • Burning when urinating
  • The feeling that you need to pee frequently, but when you go to the toilet very little urine comes out
  • Pain in the pelvic area just above the pubic bone.

Bladder infections are usually considered a simple UTI and treatment is usually with antibiotics for three to five days. Symptoms usually resolve in a couple of days.

People with an infection of the urethra may experience symptoms similar to a bladder infection in addition to itching or irritation at the end of the urethra where the pee comes out.

Symptoms of a kidney infection are usually more widespread and more severe than those of a bladder infection and may include:

  • Fever or chills
  • Pink or red-tinged urine
  • Burning when urinating
  • The feeling that you need to pee frequently, but when you go to the toilet very little urine comes out
  • Pain in the pelvic area just above the pubic bone
  • Moderate to severe lower back pain
  • Nausea or vomiting.

What Are The Most Common Causes Of Utis

What are the Common Side Effects of UTI Antibiotics?

Most of the time when you go #1, what flows out flushes away some of the troublesome microbes hanging out around your nether region.

Usually urine is sterile so theres no bacteria in it, explains Sabitha Rajan, M.D., MSc, associate managing editor at MCG. One of the things that keeps us sterile is its continuous flow. Urine flows out of your bladder, down and out your urethra , and that flow keeps any bacteria from the outside from ascending.

Proper hygiene helps keep bacteria at bay but even the cleanest among us can get a UTI. Keep an eye out for these common symptoms:

  • A burning sensation when peeing
  • A frequent urge to urinate
  • Bloody or cloudy urine
  • Bladder cramps or pelvic pain
  • And in the worst cases: fever, vomiting, and nausea

Women tend to be more susceptible to UTIs, partly because of the way their bodies are built, says Cheyenne Santiago, R.N., M.S.N., a managing editor at MCG. Men have a longer urethra that runs through the penis and farther away from the anus, so there is less of a chance for bacteria from stool and other sources to make their way to where they can cause problems.

Women, on the other hand, have a very short urethra, says Santiago. So can get bacteria forced up into your bladder.

Sex can also increase the risk of UTIs in women and so Santiago and Dr. Rajan recommend going to the bathroom after intercourse.

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Treatment Strategies For Recurrent Utis

Recurrent urinary tract infections, defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months, is very common among women these but arent treated exactly the same as standalone UTIs. One of the reasons: Continued intermittent courses of antibiotics are associated with allergic reactions, organ toxicities, future infection with resistant organisms, and more.

Because of this, its strongly recommended that you receive both a urinalysis and urine culture from your healthcare provider prior to initiating treatment. Once the results are in, the American Urological Association suggests that healthcare professionals do the following:

  • Use first-line treatments. Nitrofurantoin, TMP-SMX, and fosfomycin are the initial go-tos. However, specific drug recommendations should be dependent on the local antibiogram. An antibiogram is a periodic summary of antimicrobial susceptibilities that helps track drug resistance trends.
  • Repeat testing. If UTI symptoms persist after antimicrobial therapy, clinicians should repeat the urinalysis, urine culture, and antibiotic susceptibility testing to help guide further management.
  • Try vaginal estrogen. For peri- and post-menopausal women with recurrent UTIs, vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended to reduce risk of future UTIs.

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Adverse Effects Of Uti Antibiotics And Specific Patient Factors

If youve ever read the leaflet that comes with your UTI antibiotics, you will know there are many side effects that can occur with antibiotic use. Certain people react to certain antibiotics, and some antibiotics are much more likely to cause side effects than others.

Side Effects Of Common Antibiotics Used To Treat Uncomplicated UTI

Antimicrobial Agent

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Monitoring Response To Therapy

Patients with a simple, uncomplicated UTI may not require rigorous monitoring. However, patients with complicated, relapsing, or recurrent infections should be monitored very closely. The following protocol is recommended to monitor response to therapy in patients with relapsing, recurrent, or refractory UTI.3

  • Recheck urine culture 5 to 7 days into antibiotic therapy. This confirms that the prescribed dose and frequency of the drug were successful in treating the organism isolated. This culture also may reveal an additional isolate that could not be identified in the initial culture. Any bacterial growth observed at this time suggests treatment failure. Reconsider the choice of antibiotic, dose, and administration frequency.
  • Recheck urine culture 3 days before discontinuing antibiotic therapy. This is an optional step, but it confirms that, when therapy was discontinued, the patient still had a negative culture. Positive bacterial growth at this stage suggests a refractory infection or newly inoculated organism. Investigate patients for any nidus of infection . Alter treatment and institute new therapy for the same duration as previously intended.
  • Recheck urine culture 7 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy. Positive growth should prompt investigation for causes of relapse or reinfection.
  • Can You Get A Uti From Having Sex

    How to Treat a UTI? | Urinary Tract Infection Treatment | Top 3 Antibiotics To Use | Symptoms

    Sexual intercourse is a prime scenario for bacteria to enter the urethra, especially for women, who tend to experience more UTIs than men do. The physical activity involved in sex can send bacteria into the urethra. In fact, studies show that increasing the frequency of sex increases the likelihood of UTIs. Remember that the urethra connects directly to the bladder, so if the germs continue to travel up the urinary tract, they will reach the bladder first.

    Sex is a common way for germs like bacteria to enter the urinary tract, but its not the only way. Lets discuss some other potential UTI causes.

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    What Happens If Antibiotics Dont Work For A Uti

    If youve taken antibiotics for UTI for several days and see no improvement with your UTI, there are two common possibilities:

    • The antibiotic may be ineffective at fighting off the bacteria causing your UTI.
    • Your infection may not be bacterial.

    At this point you should contact your doctor to discuss a different treatment plan. It is likely that you will be referred to a lab for urine testing. Your urine sample will be checked for different types of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that could be causing your UTI.

    Your lab results should be back within two to three days, at which point the doctor can give you a new treatment plan for your specific infection.

    If your UTI does not go away or comes back soon after treatment, you are suffering from chronic UTIs.

    For those that wish to treat their UTI without using antibiotics or who want extra relief while taking antibiotics, there are many natural remedies that can help your body fight off a UTI.

    History And Physical Examination

    Clinical signs and symptoms of a UTI depend on the age of the child. Newborns with UTI may present with jaundice, sepsis, failure to thrive, vomiting, or fever. In infants and young children, typical signs and symptoms include fever, strong-smelling urine, hematuria, abdominal or flank pain, and new-onset urinary incontinence. School-aged children may have symptoms similar to adults, including dysuria, frequency, or urgency. Boys are at increased risk of UTI if younger than six months, or if younger than 12 months and uncircumcised. Girls are generally at an increased risk of UTI, particularly if younger than one year.3 Physical examination findings can be nonspecific but may include suprapubic tenderness or costovertebral angle tenderness.

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    What Is A Urinary Tract Infection

    If you have ever experienced the frequent urge to go the bathroom with painful and burning urination, you have probably experienced a urinary tract infection . UTIs are one of the most common types of infections, accounting for over 10 million visits to health care providers each year. Roughly 40% of women experience a UTI at some time, and in women, it is the most common infection. Healthcare costs related to UTIs exceed $1.6 billion per year.

    A urinary tract infection can happen anywhere along your urinary tract, which includes the kidneys , the ureters , the bladder , or the urethra . Most UTIs occur in the bladder and urethra. Common symptoms include frequent need to urinate, burning while urinating, and pain in lower abdomen area.

    There are different types of UTIs based on where the bacteria goes. A lower urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria gets into the urethra and is deposited up into the bladder — this is called cystitis. Infections that get past the bladder and up into the kidneys are called pyelonephritis.

    Urinary tract infection symptoms may include:

    • Pain or burning upon urination
    • A frequent or urgent need to urinate
    • Passing small amounts of urine
    • Blood in the urine or or pink-stained urine
    • Urines that looks cloudy
    • Strong-smelling urine
    • Pain, cramping in the pelvis or pubic bone area, especially in women

    Upper UTIs which include the kidney may also present with symptoms of fever, chills, back or side pain, and nausea or vomiting.

    Whats The Difference Between A Urinary Tract Infection And Bladder Infection

    Bactrim Not Working For Uti

    A urinary tract infection is a more general type of infection. There are many parts of your urinary tract. A UTI is a term for an infection that takes place throughout the urinary tract. A bladder infection, also called cystitis, is a specific infection. In this infection, bacteria makes its way into the bladder and causes inflammation.

    Not all urinary tract infections become bladder infections. Preventing the spread of the infection is one of the most important reasons to treat a UTI quickly when you have symptoms. The infection can spread not only to the bladder, but also into your kidneys, which is a more complicated type of infection than a UTI.

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    Diagnosis And Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections In Children

    BRETT WHITE, MD, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon

    Am Fam Physician. 2011 Feb 15 83:409-415.

    Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in children. Renal parenchymal defects are present in 3 to 15 percent of children within one to two years of their first diagnosed urinary tract infection. Clinical signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection depend on the age of the child, but all febrile children two to 24 months of age with no obvious cause of infection should be evaluated for urinary tract infection . Evaluation of older children may depend on the clinical presentation and symptoms that point toward a urinary source . Increased rates of E. coli resistance have made amoxicillin a less acceptable choice for treatment, and studies have found higher cure rates with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Other treatment options include amoxicillin/clavulanate and cephalosporins. Prophylactic antibiotics do not reduce the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections, even in children with mild to moderate vesicoureteral reflux. Constipation should be avoided to help prevent urinary tract infections. Ultrasonography, cystography, and a renal cortical scan should be considered in children with urinary tract infections.

    How Can I Get Instant Relief From A Uti

    Because most UTIs are bacterial, antibiotics for UTI treatment are the fastest way to get rid of a UTI and get relief.

    Not just any antibiotic will cure your UTI. Some antibiotics are processed in a way that they never even reach the urinary tract. Other antibiotics may be equipped to fight off another type of bacteria, but not the one causing your UTI.

    So, how do you know which antibiotic for UTI treatment is best for you?

    The two most important questions you and your doctor need to consider are:

    • What is the most likely bacteria causing the infection?
    • What antibiotic is known to combat that bacterium?

    With this, you doctor will prescribe you an antibiotic for UTI treatment and you should start feeling better in a few days.

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    What Is The First

    First-line antibiotics for acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infections typically include:

    • Fosfomycin
    Cost of generic
    First
    100 mg twice daily for 5 days $55
    400 mg orally 2-3 times daily for 3-7 days NA in the U.S.
    Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg twice daily for 3 days $17
    250 mg twice daily for 3 days $26
    Ciprofloxacin, extended release 500 mg daily for 3 days $57
    250 mg daily for 3 days NA

    200 mg daily for 3 days or400 mg single dose

    500/125 mg twice daily for 7 days $32
    300 mg twice daily for 10 days $40
    100 mg twice daily for 7 days $71

    Since there is a lower chance of antibiotic resistance with nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin as compared to other classes of antibiotics, they are often used as first-line antibiotics for the treatment of UTI.

    However, for severe UTI with complications, fosfomycin or nitrofurantoin may not be effective.

    First Line Antibiotics For A Uti

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    • Ampicillin
    • Nitrofurantoin
    • Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

    Notably absent from the list of antibiotics prescribed for the treatment of UTIs is Amoxicillin. While very popular and useful in treating numerous other bacterial infections, urinary tract infections are not amongst the infections Amoxicillin is used for.

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    Can You Test For Interstitial Cystitis

    At a certain point, when UTI tests fail to identify a bacterial cause for symptoms, a diagnosis of recurrent UTI is escalated to IC for many individuals.

    We know standard UTI testing methods are inaccurate. So there is a good chance a significant number of people are misdiagnosed with IC after receiving a false-negative on their test results. They may have an infection that testing has simply failed to pick up.

    I was told my urine culture was negative, and I therefore didnt have an infection. I was subsequently diagnosed with IC, but occasionally, during a symptoms flare, I would be culture positive. Eventually I pursued better testing, and found Id probably had an infection the whole time. Im slowly recovering, with treatment, and Im glad I didnt accept my diagnosis in the end.

    A number of researchers now believe many cases of Interstitial Cystitis may indeed be caused by bacteria that standard UTI testing has failed to identify.

    Read more about Interstitial Cystitis and chronic infection testing and treatment in a dedicated section from our interview with Ruth Kriz.

    If you have received inconclusive or negative test results, despite symptoms of a UTI, we encourage you to keep pushing for an answer. Seek better testing and find a practitioner who is willing to work with you.

    Which Antibiotic Will Work Best

    Your doctor will take a urine sample to confirm that you have a UTI. Then the lab will grow the germs in a dish for a couple of days to find out which type of bacteria you have. This is called a culture. Itâll tell your doctor what type of germs caused your infection. Theyâll likely prescribe one of the following antibiotics to treat it before the culture comes back:

    Which medication and dose you get depends on whether your infection is complicated or uncomplicated.

    âUncomplicatedâ means your urinary tract is normal. âComplicatedâ means you have a disease or problem with your urinary tract. You could have a narrowing of your ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder, a narrowing in the urethra which transports urine from the bladder out of the body, or, you might have a blockage like a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate . It’s also possible you have a urinary fistula or a bladder diverticulum.

    To treat a complicated infection, your doctor might prescribe a higher dose of antibiotics. If your UTI is severe or the infection is in your kidneys, you might need to be treated in a hospital or doctor’s office with high-dose antibiotics you get through an IV.

    Your doctor will also consider these factors when choosing an antibiotic:

    • Are you over age 65?
    • Are you allergic to any antibiotics?
    • Have you had any side effects from antibiotics in the past?

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