Antibiotics To Prevent Infection
Antibiotics are sometimes given as a precaution to prevent, rather than treat, an infection. This is called antibiotic prophylaxis. Situations where antibiotics are given as a preventive treatment include:
- if you’re having an operation
- after a bite or wound that could get infected
- if you have a health problem that means you’re at higher risk of infection such as if you’ve had your spleen removed or you’re having chemotherapy treatment
How Antibiotics May Render Flu Infections More Dangerous
Doctors already know that misusing antibiotics can cause antibiotic resistance, which can make it difficult to fight bacterial infections, such as pneumonia. Now, a study in mice suggests that antibiotic use could also make the lungs more vulnerable to viral infections, such as the flu.
Antibiotic resistance has become a pressing issue for researchers and healthcare professionals. This phenomenon occurs when a bacterial infection no longer responds to the antibiotics that doctors typically use to treat it.
This resistance often develops due to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, as many individuals across the world mistakenly opt for antibiotics to treat viral infections, such as the influenza virus , against which these drugs are ineffective.
A new study in mice by researchers from the Francis Crick Institute in London, United Kingdom, now suggests that antibiotics could actually also prime the lungs for viral infections.
The researchers findings, which feature in the journal , also show that gut bacteria drive a type of protein signaling that helps the cells that line the lungs keep the flu virus from spreading.
Antibiotic use, it seems, interferes with this protein signaling and thus impairs this first line of defense.
We found that antibiotics can wipe out early flu resistance, adding further evidence that they should not be taken or prescribed lightly, explains lead researcher Andreas Wack, Ph.D.
Are There Any Special Precautions To Take When I Travel
Because you are at particular risk of infection, it is wise to plan very carefully for travel. Have all travel vaccinations advised for your destination. Avoid going to places where you wouldn’t have access to good medical care if you became ill. Travel with information about your condition and medication in case you need the help of a health professional while away from your usual doctor. Check your travel insurance covers you if you become ill. Discuss with your doctor and consider taking some “in-case” antibiotics and instructions for when to take them if you are at risk of specific infections. Take the usual precautions to avoid food poisoning/traveller’s diarrhoea if visiting somewhere this might be a risk.
And finally, if travelling somewhere hot, use plenty of high-factor sun cream to protect your skin.
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Tingling Or Numbness In Your Hands And Feet
It can be completely innocent. But in some cases it can mean that your body is attacking nerves that send signals to your muscles. People who have Guillain-Barre syndrome, for instance, may have numbness that starts in their legs then moves up to their arms and chest.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has symptoms similar to the demyelinating form of GBS , but while GBS lasts two weeks to 30 days. CIDP lasts much longer.
Be Antibiotics Aware: Smart Use Best Care
Be Antibiotics Aware is the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions national educational effort to help improve antibiotic prescribing and use and combat antibiotic resistance.
Antibiotic resistance is one of the most urgent threats to the publics health. Antibiotic resistance happens when germs, like bacteria and fungi, develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. That means the germs are not killed and continue to grow. More than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the United States each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result.
Antibiotics can save lives, but any time antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Each year, at least 28% of antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily in U.S. doctors offices and emergency rooms , which makes improving antibiotic prescribing and use a national priority.
Helping healthcare professionals improve the way they prescribe antibiotics, and improving the way we take antibiotics, helps keep us healthy now, helps fight antibiotic resistance, and ensures that these life-saving drugs will be available for future generations.
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Animal Models Exploring Antibioitc
Animal models are particularly relevant to establish cause relationships that cannot be directly tested in humans in controlled settings. Although there are limitations in extrapolating findings from animal models, designing experiments that closely resemble the use of antibiotics in humans, including antibiotic combinations, doses, and route of administration, would have the potential to offer more relevant information. For instance, the common practice of extrapolation of antibiotic dose from humans to mice, which is based on the body weight alone, does not stand appropriate due to physiological and biochemical differences between these two animal species that influence pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of antibiotics. Hence, better approaches, such as allometric scaling based on normalization of dose to body surface area, are needed to calibrate the drug dose . While mice are the preferred animal models for antibiotic-related studies in neonates, the use of large animals like pigs may provide a better alternative due to anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, and large-sized neonates allow easier therapeutic manipulations like intramuscular and intravenous injections.
What Is The Immune System
The immune system protects your child’s body from outside invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and toxins . It is made up of different organs, cells, and proteins that work together.
There are two main parts of the immune system:
The innate immune system, which you are born with.
The adaptive immune system, which you develop when your body is exposed to microbes or chemicals released by microbes.
These two immune systems work together.
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Lupus And Common Infections
People with lupus are prone to catching the same kinds of infections that affect other people. However, theyre also at risk from opportunistic organisms, such as fungi, that are more likely to cause infection when the immune system is weakened. Although people with lupus are more susceptible to microorganisms, the resulting infections are usually mild. Some of the more common infections include:
- herpes zoster
- Candida albicans .
Impact On Host Defense Against Infection
Antibiotics have attracted much attention as one of the most important factors that causes microbial dysbiosis during infancy and are linked to a higher risk of diseases with immune involvement in later life, including infectious diseases . In case control retrospective studies, prolonged exposure to antibiotic therapy was found to be associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, or death among very low birth weight infants . By analyzing the stool microbiota and metabolites of preterm infants with seven days of empirical antibiotic treatment, Zhu et al. showed a significant reduction in bacterial diversity and enrichment of pathogens, such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas . A Danish cohort study demonstrated that maternal antibiotics prescribed before or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant infection-related hospitalization . Epidemiological studies further shed light on how antibiotic use predisposes human infants to susceptibility to diarrhea and respiratory tract infections . Although these studies provide crucial indications on increased susceptibility to infection, more convincing and direct evidence originates from studies involving animal models.
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Antibiotic Clearance Of Salmonella In The Mouse Model
Two different mouse models are commonly used to investigate the immune response to Salmonella infection . The first model involves infecting genetically resistant mice with virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, thus allowing detailed study of innate and adaptive immune responses during the natural resolution of Salmonella infection . The alternative approach is to infect genetically susceptible mice with attenuated Salmonella strains, again allowing basic analysis of immune responses to primary bacterial infection . The obvious caveat to this second model is that the bacteria used are not fully virulent however, the basic mechanism of primary clearance appears similar in both models. As noted above, protective immunity to secondary infection requires the cooperation of CD4 T cells and Salmonella-specific antibody responses. Importantly, in the genetically resistant model, protective immunity to reinfection can be transferred by antibody alone , making this model less useful for examining CD4 T cell memory. Since humans require MHC class II-restricted T cell responses for efficient resolution of Salmonella infection , the susceptible mouse model is often used when studying the protective role of CD4 T cells against secondary infection.
Antibiotics Are Overprescribed And Often Unnecessary
Overall, research has found that antibiotics can sometimes inhibit the work that the immune system performs to attack infections. And that’s not the only reason to be cautious.
“If an antibiotic isn’t needed to treat your infection, it can potentially harm you,” Dass notes. Side effects diarrhea, nausea, yeast infections, and vomiting can occur, she says.
Plus, taking antibiotics when they’re not needed increases antibiotic resistance. This “means the bacteria will be harder to treat because the bacteria can now overcome the antibiotic’s effects either by neutralizing the antibiotic or protecting the bacteria itself,” Dass says.
This is something the CDC describes as the “greatest public health challenge of our time.” Overprescription of antibiotics is rampant one-third of all outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics simply aren’t necessary. Put another way: Doctors write out 47 million unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions each year.
“Antibiotics are very commonly overused or misused,” says Dass. If you feel sick because of a cold, flu, or viral sinusitis, taking antibiotics won’t help with your symptoms or prevent the spread of the illness.
“By taking an antibiotic unnecessarily, studies show that there are longer hospitalizations, increased bacterial resistance, and more office visits to your doctor,” Dass says.
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What You Can Do
To help fight antibiotic resistance and protect yourself against infection:
- Don’t take antibiotics unless you’re certain you need them. An estimated 30% of the millions of prescriptions written each year are not needed. Always ask your doctor if antibiotics will really help. For illnesses caused by viruses — common colds, bronchitis, and many ear and sinus infections — they won’t.
- Finish your pills. Take your entire prescription exactly as directed. Do it even if you start feeling better. If you stop before the infection is completely wiped out, those bacteria are more likely to become drug-resistant.
- Get vaccinated. Immunizations can protect you against some diseases that are treated with antibiotics. They include tetanus and whooping cough.
- Stay safe in the hospital. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are commonly found in hospitals. Make sure your caregivers wash their hands properly. Also, ask how to keep surgical wounds free of infection.
Antibiotics Weaken Flu Defences In The Lung
- Date created: 2 July 2019
- Category Tag:
Scanning electron micrograph of epithelial cells lining the inside of a mouse lung. Different cell types with different shapes and different functions compose this inner lining, and the right balance between these cell types is important for a healthy lung.
Antibiotics can leave the lung vulnerable to flu viruses, leading to significantly worse infections and symptoms, finds a new study in mice led by the Francis Crick Institute.
The research, published in Cell Reports, discovered that signals from gut bacteria help to maintain a first line of defence in the lining of the lung. When mice with healthy gut bacteria were infected with the flu, around 80% of them survived. However, only a third survived if they were given antibiotics before being infected.
“We found that antibiotics can wipe out early flu resistance, adding further evidence that they should not be taken or prescribed lightly,” explains Dr Andreas Wack, who led the research at the Francis Crick Institute. “Inappropriate use not only promotes antibiotic resistance and kills helpful gut bacteria, but may also leave us more vulnerable to viruses. This could be relevant not only in humans but also livestock animals, as many farms around the world use antibiotics prophylactically. Further research in these environments is urgently needed to see whether this makes them more susceptible to viral infections.”
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Accidentally Taking An Extra Dose
Accidentally taking one extra dose of your antibiotic is unlikely to cause you any serious harm.
But it will increase your chances of experiencing side effects, such as pain in your stomach, diarrhoea, and feeling or being sick.
If you accidentally take more than one extra dose of your antibiotic, are worried or experiencing severe side effects, speak to your GP or call NHS 24 111 service as soon as possible.
Myth: Antibiotics Do Not Have Side Effects
Fact: Antibiotics can have many side effects. For example, prolonged use of antibiotics can damage liver function. Antibiotics can also destroy the helpful bacteria that reside in your gut. This is because antibiotics are not able to distinguish between the helpful gut bacteria and the harmful bacteria.
Food To Restore Gut Bacteria
Certain food can help restore the gut bacteria, especially after undergoing a long course of antibiotics. Fermented food like curd, kimchi, cheese, and kombucha are loaded with good bacteria like Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, which helps restore balance in the gut.
Eating fiber-rich food also helps the gut bacteria to restore balance. While on antibiotics, you should eat high fiber food like bananas, lentils, nuts, whole grains, beans, broccoli, peas, berries, etc.
Study Shows Antibiotics Destroy Immune Cells And Worsen Oral Infection
New research shows that the bodys own microbes are effective in maintaining immune cells and killing certain oral infections.
A team of Case Western Reserve University researchers found that antibiotics actually kill the good bacteria keeping infection and inflammation at bay.
Scientists have long known that overuse of antibiotics can do more harm than good. For example, overuse can cause antibiotic resistance. But research into this phenomenon in oral health was uncharted territory.
Pushpa Pandiyan, an assistant professor of biological sciences in the School of Dental Medicine, led a team of researchers to examine resident bacteria, their fatty acids and their effect on certain types of white blood cells that combat infections in the mouth. Specifically, researchers looked at the short-term maintenance of Tregs and Th-17 cells in fighting fungal infections, such as Candida, in a laboratory setting.
They found that those natural defenses were very effective in reducing infection and unwanted inflammation-and antibiotics can prevent such natural defenses.
Their work was recently published in Frontiers in Microbiology.
We set out to find out what happens when you dont have bacteria to fight a fungal infection, Pandiyan said. What we found was that antibiotics can kill short-chain fatty acids produced by bodys own good bacteria.
However, needless overuse of antibiotics is not helpful, she said.
What You Arent Told About Antibiotics
You know the small print warning labels that we all acknowledge but dont really read? Yeah, thats where antibiotic use and immune suppression come into play. It turns out, antibiotics do weaken your immune system.
Antibiotics negatively impact microbiota in the gut. These medications are prescribed to treat bacterial infections and kill the bad bacteria in our bodies however, antibiotics arent specific enough and end up killing some of the good bacteria at the same time. One study showed that a seven-day course of the antibiotic clindamycin resulted in decreased diversity of microbiota for 2 years following administration. Other antibiotics have shown similar adverse effects with metronidazole even thinning out the protective mucous layer in the GI tract, leading to inflammation.4 These studies illustrate the harmful impact antibodies can have on our microbiota which ultimately end up dampening our immune system.
We said the microbiota are responsible for making a robust immune system, and when that microbiota is diminished, so is our immunity. The immune system gets compromised by a decline in lymphocytes and innate antibodies. This makes the body more susceptible to subsequent pathogens and may not have the necessary defenses to combat them.
Antibiotics And The Microbiome
The researchers were seeking to understand the role of the gut microbiome the microorganisms that live within us in amebic colitis, a potentially deadly parasitic infection common in developing countries. They analyzed stool samples collected from children in the urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and determined that children with more severe infections had less diversity in their gut microbiome.
The researchers then used lab mice to determine how the decrease in natural intestinal flora might be worsening the disease. They found that antibiotics disrupted the mices gut microbiomes, decreasing the activity of neutrophils and blocking these important white blood cells from responding when needed. This left the gut insufficiently protected. In essence, the guts guards did not respond when called and the invaders could march right in.
In addition, the intestinal barrier that protects against disease was compromised. The disruption of the microbiome reduced production of a key cellular protein vital to the barriers effectiveness.
I think the take-home is that this is another important reason not to use antibiotics unless they are clearly needed, said researcher Bill Petri, MD, PhD, the chief of UVAs Division of Infectious Diseases. Unwise use of antibiotics not only increases the risk of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the risk of C. difficile infection but also impairs white blood cell function.
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