Most Common Bacteria That Cause Utis
Based on a study by The National Center for Biotechnology Information, the bacteria most commonly associated with causing UTIs are:
- Escherichia coli
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Based on the symptoms the patient is experiencing and before any testing is done to officially determine the infection type, the doctor prescribes first line antibiotics. For most UTIs, the prescribed antibiotic will cure the infection and not require any further testing.
What Else Can You Do When Antibiotics Fail
When it comes to the best treatment for recurrent chronic UTIs there are two main camps.
Some physicians prefer a long-term antibiotic treatment protocol, frequently prescribing a variety of antibiotics over the course of several months .
Others advocate for the mindful use of antibiotics and focus on correcting underlying dysbiosis as the main reason for recurrent UTIs. In fact, we are still learning about the human microbiome and the effect bacteria have on our health and it seems less and less probable that antibiotics alone could solve chronic issues.
Moreover, antibiotics were developed when we thought that a healthy bladder is sterile which we now know is far from the truth.
What is the best approach to cure a chronic UTI? Here is a selection of posts that can help you to get up to speed:
Amoxicillin/potassium Clavulanate Cefdinir Or Cephalexin
How it Works: is another combination drug that belongs to the penicillin class of antibiotics. and belong to a different class of antibiotics thats closely related to penicillins.
All three antibiotics kill bacteria by destroying one of its most important components: the cell wall, which normally keeps bacteria structurally intact.
Amoxicillin/clavulanate: 500 twice a day for 5 to 7 days
Cefdinir: 300 mg twice a day for 5 to 7 days
Cephalexin: 250 mg to 500 mg every 6 hours for 7 days
Notable side effects: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash are common side effects of these antibiotics. In rare cases, all three have the potential to cause the dangerous skin reactions, SJS and TEN.
If you have a penicillin allergy, your healthcare provider wont prescribe amoxicillin/clavulanate. They may or may not prescribe cefdinir or cephalexin since there is a small chance that a person with a penicillin allergy may also be allergic to these two.
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Who Can And Cannot Take Trimethoprim
Most adults and children can take trimethoprim.
Trimethoprim is not suitable for some people. To make sure this medicine is safe for you, tell your doctor if you:
- have ever had an allergic reaction to trimethoprim or any other medicine
- have liver or kidney problems
- have porphyria or any other blood disorder
- are trying to get pregnant or are already pregnant
Why Are Utis So Bad For Elderly
Why are seniors at risk for UTIs? Men and women older than 65 are at greater risk for UTIs. This is because both men and women tend to have more problems emptying their bladder completely as they age, causing bacteria to develop in the urinary system.
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What Are The Side Effects Of Bactrim
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction or a severe skin reaction .
Seek medical treatment if you have a serious drug reaction that can affect many parts of your body. Symptoms may include: skin rash, fever, swollen glands, joint pain, muscle aches, severe weakness, pale skin, unusual bruising, or yellowing of your skin or eyes.
- severe stomach pain, diarrhea that is watery or bloody
- any skin rash, no matter how mild
- yellowing of your skin or eyes
- a seizure
- swelling, bruising, or irritation around the IV needle
- increased thirst, dry mouth, fruity breath odor
- new or worsening cough, fever, trouble breathing
- high blood potassium–nausea, weakness, tingly feeling, chest pain, irregular heartbeats, loss of movement
- low blood sodium–headache, confusion, problems with thinking or memory, weakness, feeling unsteady or
- low blood cell counts–fever, chills, mouth sores, skin sores, easy bruising, unusual bleeding, pale skin, cold hands and feet, feeling light-headed or short of breath.
Common side effects may include:
- nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite or
- skin rash.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
The Best Antibiotics For Uti
The top antibiotics for UTI are:
- Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole This is a combination antibiotic drug used for treating UTI and other infections. The antibiotic works by preventing the growth of bacteria. It is available in tablet and suspension form and must be prescribed by a doctor. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.
- Fosfomycin Fosfomycin is an antibacterial drug used for treating urinary tract infections. It kills bacteria that cause UTI. Fosfomycin is available by prescription only in tablet form. Fosfomycin side effects may include diarrhea, nausea, and headaches.
- Nitrofurantoin This antibiotic is frequently used to treat acute UTIs. Nitrofurantoin inhibits bacterial DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. The most common side effects of Nitrofurantoin are nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting.
- Cephalexin Cephalexin can treat a variety of bacterial infections, including UTIs. By inhibiting the formation of the bacterial cell wall, Cephalexin helps prevent the growth of bacteria causing a UTI. Cephalexin is available in capsule, and suspension form.
- Ceftriaxone Ceftriaxone injection also treats many different types of infections caused by bacteria. The injection may be administered in a doctors office or hospital. Ceftriaxone kills bacteria that cause urinary tract infections and is only available with a doctors prescription.
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Often Asked: What Is The Best Antibiotic For Uti In Elderly
Today, amoxicillin is commonly prescribed as first-line treatment for UTIs in older adults. Other common narrow-spectrum must be used with caution when patients have chronic kidney disease or take blood pressure medication, as many older adults do or because their side effects can be serious in older adults.
What Drugs And Food Should I Avoid While Taking Bactrim
If you use the injection form of this medicine, do not eat or drink anything that contains propylene glycol . Dangerous effects could occur.
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim could make you sunburn more easily. Avoid sunlight or tanning beds. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen when you are outdoors.
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Who Needs Antibiotics For Uti
While the question seems like it answers itself, treatment of UTIs is not always a straightforward affair. There are different bacteria involved, infections are discovered at different points in their pathology, and different people respond to antibiotics differently. So, while anyone suffering from a UTI will probably need to consider antibiotics, which one is the right one will vary from case to case and from person to person.
How the antibiotic is administered will also need to be determined on a case by case basis. As will the duration of treatment. These days, single-dose antibiotic treatment may also be a viable alternative.
Prophylaxis Against Pneumocystis Jirovecii
Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole prophylaxis of P. jirovecii pneumonia infection is highly effective in cancer patients. A recent Cochrane meta-analysis including 11 clinical trials in human immunodeficiency virus -negative hematologic patients has shown 91% reduction in the incidence of PJP infection and 83% reduction in PJP-related mortality with TMPSMX prophylaxis compared to placebo or no treatment.86 TMPSMX should therefore be used whenever possible as first-line agent.87 Few data are available on alternative prophylactic regimens: higher rates of PJP infection were reported with aerosolized pentamidine or dapsone than with TMPSMX.88,89 Prophylactic regimens and indication for use are shown in Table 79-1.
Myles Spar MD, MPH, in, 2018
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Get Your Prescription Filled Right Away
Once you are done with your appointment and have received a prescription for an antibiotic, its important you get it filled at a pharmacy as soon as possible. The faster you start taking your medication, the faster your UTI will be gone.
If you usually use next-day prescription delivery or a mail order pharmacy, this is one time when you should avoid doing this. These options can cause a delay by anywhere from 1 day to 1 week . Youre better off using a local pharmacy in this case.
If going into the pharmacy is a concern due to COVID-19, many pharmacies have added options to help minimize the amount of time you are inside the building. Some options to ask about at your pharmacy include:
Same-day delivery through services like Instacart
Using the pharmacys drive-thru pick-up window
Paying ahead of time through the pharmacys smartphone app to make your time spent at the checkout counter faster
Every pharmacy is different, so make sure to ask your personal pharmacy if these options are available at your location.
Treating Uti With Antibiotics
The antibiotics that belong to the beta-lactam group are very similar to penicillins and cephalosporins in their chemical composition. In fact, they also share some chemical features with other recently introduced antibiotics as well. Hence, they are a popular choice for treating urinary tract infection. Another beta lactam antibiotic is pivmecillinam that is very similar to mecillinam. This antibiotic is very commonly used in European countries for the treatment of UTI.
A very popular antibiotic belonging to the penicillin group is Amoxicillin. This antibiotic is widely used in the treatment of bacterial skin infections such as acne. However, amoxicillin was also prescribed for the treatment of UTI until a few years ago. The standard procedure of treating UTI was taking amoxicillin for 10 days. But now the E. coli have become resistant to the medication and in almost 25% cases the antibiotic doesnt work.
Another form of penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate or Augmentin is being used these days for treating urinary tract infection in adults as well as in children. Augmentin is generally given for treating bacterial infections that have do not respond to other antibiotic treatments. However, this medication only works if the urinary tract infection is the result of rapid multiplication of Gram-positive bacteria such as those belonging to the Enterococcus and S. saprophyticus classes.
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Discuss With Your Doctor If Some Of Your Uti Symptoms Persist After Antibiotics
Here are several questions that you should think about prior to your doctor visit to help your physician with the right information:
- Are your symptoms stronger when the bladder is full and you feel better after urination?
- Does a certain position trigger bladder pain?
- Do you feel that your symptoms stay the same over the course of days and even weeks?
- Is there blood in your urine, foul smell, or is your urine cloudy?
- If youd like more help on how to discuss your UTI with your provider and how to make the most out of your patient-doctor relationships, check out my Actionable Guide here.
How Long Does It Take To Work
Cipro begins to work against bacterial infections within hours of when you take it. However, you may not notice improvement in your symptoms for a few days.
The Cipro dosage your doctor prescribes will depend on several factors. These include:
- the type and severity of the condition youre using Cipro to treat
- your age
- the form of Cipro you take
- other medical conditions you may have, such as kidney disease
Typically, your doctor will start you on a low dosage and adjust it over time to reach the dosage thats right for you. Theyll ultimately prescribe the smallest dosage that provides the desired effect.
The following information describes dosages that are commonly used or recommended. However, be sure to take the dosage your doctor prescribes for you. Your doctor will determine the best dosage to suit your needs.
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How Can I Get Instant Relief From A Uti
Because most UTIs are bacterial, antibiotics for UTI treatment are the fastest way to get rid of a UTI and get relief.
Not just any antibiotic will cure your UTI. Some antibiotics are processed in a way that they never even reach the urinary tract. Other antibiotics may be equipped to fight off another type of bacteria, but not the one causing your UTI.
So, how do you know which antibiotic for UTI treatment is best for you?
The two most important questions you and your doctor need to consider are:
- What is the most likely bacteria causing the infection?
- What antibiotic is known to combat that bacterium?
With this, you doctor will prescribe you an antibiotic for UTI treatment and you should start feeling better in a few days.
How Long Do I Need To Take Antibiotics For Uti
Anyone whos dealing with a UTI is asking themselves, how can I get rid of a UTI fast? Fortunately, after you begin antibiotic treatment you can expect to feel symptom relief in as little as one to two days.
How long your doctor prescribes antibiotics for your UTI will vary based on the severity of your infection.
For an uncomplicated UTI antibiotics may be prescribed for as little as three days.
That said, some doctors may have you take antibiotics for UTI for a week, and for complicated UTIs antibiotic treatment can last up to two weeks.
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Signs That Uti Is Not Responding To Antibiotics
What if you feel lower back pain? Is this a sure sign that infection is progressing to the kidneys and antibiotics are not working?
While lower back pain could be an important sign of kidney infection, in many cases low back pain alone is not a sure sign that bacteria ascended to the kidneys, it could be just pain radiating from the bladder due to UTI, clarifies Dr. Hawes. However, if you are experiencing fever and/or nausea, these are very serious symptoms and you should seek immediate medical attention.
This is when the chances are higher to get sick with an infection caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria:
- You underwent multiple UTI treatments in your lifetime
- If you have been using the same antibiotic for previous infections
- Stopped taking antibiotics and didnt finish all the pills that your doctor prescribed you
- If you are guilty of keeping a stash of antibiotics and self-treating UTIs, cold, travel diarrhea, etc.
- Youve been recently hospitalized
- If you are immunosuppressed or have any serious chronic health issues, for example, uncontrolled diabetes.
Dr. Hawes highlights that it is important to request a urine culture test before deciding on a type of antibiotic. If you are taking multiple antibiotics without checking bacterial drug sensitivity, its a guessing game that only increases your chances to develop resistant bacteria.
Read how torevert antibiotic resistance with diet.
It Is Relatively Safe For Uti Prevention
In 2014 a clinical study tested nitrofurantoin alongside with D-Mannose for long-term UTI prevention effectiveness.
A group of 308 female patients with a history of recurrent UTI and no other significant health issues was randomly allocated to three groups after completing antibiotic treatment of acute cystitis.
The first group was taking 2 g of D-mannose powder in 200 ml of water daily for 6 months, the second group received 50 mg Macrobid for UTI prevention daily, and the third did not receive anything to prevent infection from recurring.
As a result, the patients in the D-Mannose group and nitrofurantoin group had a significantly lower risk of recurrent UTI episode during prophylactic therapy compared to patients who were receiving no preventive treatment.
Patients in both groups did not have any significant side effects when taking D-Mannose and nitrofurantoin during this 6 month period.
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What Are Potential Side Effects Of Antibiotics For Uti
In addition to the notable side effects weve already covered, there are a few more potential antibiotic side effects youll want to know about.
Most antibiotics can cause some degree of stomach upset like nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea. If you have severe diarrhea or diarrhea that lasts for 2 or more days, let your healthcare provider know. Diarrhea is a common side effect while taking antibiotics and just after finishing them. But in some cases, diarrhea from antibiotics can be a sign of a more serious infection caused by Clostridium difficile bacteria.
Some people are also sensitive to antibiotics, which could result in a minor reaction like a rash or a more serious reaction like anaphylaxis. If you notice difficulty breathing or major skin changes after taking an antibiotic, get medical help right away.
That Makes Otherwise Healthy Patients Sicker
Usually, patients with chronic medical conditions or weakened immune systems are most susceptible to drug-resistant infections, but UTIs “have a dubious distinction” of being “the single biggest risk to healthy people from drug-resistant germs,” Richtel writes.
That means, with the rise of antibiotic-resistant infections, more and more generally healthy patients are experiencing stubborn UTIs and prolonged symptoms.
Carolina Barcelos, a postdoctoral researcher, had several UTIs when she was a teenager, which were successfully treated with Bactrim. But, when she got a UTI in February, Bactrim didn’t work. She was prescribed nitrofurantoin, another antibiotic, four days later, which didn’t work either. Finally, she was prescribed ciproflaxacin, which cleared the infection. A urine culture showed that the infection was susceptible to the third medication, but not the first two.
“Next time, I’m going to ask them to do a culture right away,” she said. “For eight days I was taking antibiotics that weren’t working for me.”
The rise of antibiotic-resistant UTIs showcases a broader concern about antibiotic resistance: E. coli is not only proving resistant to individual antibiotics, but a group of drugs called beta-lactam antibiotics, Richtel reports.
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