Sunday, May 26, 2024

Oral Antibiotics For Eye Infection

Cuterebra Or Warbles In Dogs

Antibiotic Ear Drops – When and How to Use Ear Drops Properly

Cuterebra are botflies that spend the larvae stage of their lifecycle within rodent or rabbit hosts and can accidentally infect dogs. They enter through the nose, mouth or a skin wound. They usually develop a cyst under the skin that can be located as it enlarges and often a breathing hole can be seen. The larva will leave the dog when it is ready to form a pupa but it will often leave behind a secondary bacterial skin infection or abscess in the empty cyst. Rarely, the larva/cuterebra migrate aberrantly through the dog causing inflammation and damage to different tissues, including the brain and eyes, and even potentially cause a severe systemic inflammatory response. Treatment depends on what damage has been done and can include removal of the warble, debridement or removal of the cyst, antibiotics and symptomatic and supportive treatment of the results of aberrant migration. Prognosis is generally good if only the skin is involved. Cuterebra infection cant be prevented easily, so monitoring the dog regularly for signs is important.

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Types Of Conjunctivitis In Dogs

There are three main types of conjunctivitis in dogs.

  • Allergic Conjunctivitis: Caused by an allergic reaction that can be seasonal but should not be contagious.

  • Viral Conjunctivitis: Caused by a virus that can be spread easily and rapidly. Typically it takes around 3 weeks for the dog to fully recover.

  • Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Caused by bacteria which can spread to other dogs easily.

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Table 3 Oral Antibiotic Dosing11262732333539

Amoxicillin + clavulanate 400mg daily for 10 days Ciprofloxacin 500mg to 750mg BID for 10 days** *Higher doses of amoxicillin provide better coverage for potential Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. This organism is more likely to cause infection in adults with an ocular infection.**Choose only if Pseudomonas aeruginosa is suspected or documented.

The mechanisms of action for fluoroquinolones, include bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase inhibitors. Fluoroquinolones have coverage of Pseudomonas.

Sulfonamides, which inhibit sequential steps in folate synthesis, are a good medication choice for skin/soft tissue infections due to MRSA coverage.

It is important to note that no anti-infective provides ideal coverage for all pathogens for all infected sites. Heres a look at the most common antibiotics used in eye care.

3,10-12 This agent includes a beta-lactam combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor . The addition of the beta-lactamase enzyme inhibitor clavulanate provides increased protection for amoxicillin against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as some anaerobes.10-12 In pus-producing infections, the clavulanate is essential to protecting the beta-lactam ring.

It is considered safe for individuals eight weeks of age or older as well as for those who are pregnant or breastfeeding . Keflex, which is generally well tolerated, is the drug of choice for blowout orbital fractures at a higher dose of 500mg four times a day.

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Can Dogs Get Eye Infections

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Pink eye, the scourge of the kindergarten and farmyard alike! Eye infections, often called pink eye, can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, resulting in inflammation of the eye membranes making them appear pink or red. Eye infections are usually very irritating for humans, and are often spread amongst school children. These infections are also commonly seen in the farmyard, where they are associated with livestock and other animals.

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As Doctors We Tend To Settle Into Habitual Prescribing Patternsbut We Must Make Sure That We Always Fully Consider The Patients Needs

Chloramphenicol Antibiotic Eye Ointment 1% 4g

Jill Autry, O.D., R.Ph.

Oral Antibiotics StaphylococcusStreptococcusHaemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus Pain Control Oral Hypotensive MedsOral AntiviralsOral Steroids Dr. Autry practices in a referral center in Houston. She lectures extensively on pharmaceuctical and ocular disease topics.

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What Is Conjunctivitis In Dogs

Conjunctiva is the term for the thin mucus membranes that line the eyeballs, inner surfaces of the eyelids, and the third eyelid .

The term conjunctivitis refers to inflammation or infection of these tissues, which results in redness, tearing or watering, and other signs of irritation in the eye area. One or both eyes would have an appearance similar to pink eye in humans.

Prescription Antibacterial Eye Drops

There are different types of antibiotic eye drops, including:

Each of these has different action mechanisms. Not all of them will cure all bacterial eye infections.

For example, topical antibiotics often will not cure a stye. In some cases, two or three may be combined into a single formulation to treat an infection comprehensively.

Many types of antibiotics can kill streptococcal bacteria. Staphylococcal bacteria can develop a resistance to some antibiotics. In these cases, your doctor must select a stronger antibiotic.

Sometimes a topical or oral antibiotic may be necessary to treat your bacterial eye infection. They may be prescribed in addition to or instead of an antibiotic eye drop.

Topical and oral antibiotics used to treat eye infections include:

  • Neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin combination

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What Are Common Side Effects Of Pinkeye Medications

Side effects of ophthalmic antibiotic ointments or drops used to treat pinkeye include temporary stinging or burning of the eyes when first applied and temporary blurred or unstable vision after applying eye ointment. More serious side effects include rash, itching or burning eyes, redness/pain or swelling in or around the eyes, and vision problems.

Side effects of antihistamines include dry mouth, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, restlessness or moodiness , trouble urinating, blurred vision, or confusion. Ophthalmic mast cell stabilizers may cause burning, stinging, or blurred vision when applied.

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Other Pink Eye Treatments

What is Stye (External Hordeoloum)?

In most cases, your natural defenses will work to clear your pink eye infection. However, you can also take other steps to help soothe your eyes and promote healing. Steps to consider include:

  • Frequent handwashing and avoidance of touching your eyes
  • Applying a wet washcloth to the closed lids to help rid you of the crustiness
  • Using over-the-counter drops such as artificial tears to lubricate eyes, antihistamine medication to fight itch, and vasoconstricting drops that tighten blood vessels to combat redness in the short term
  • Staying away from contact lens use while suffering from pink eye

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Antibiotics For A Stye

Most styes dont require antibiotics.

But in the case of recurring infections or a stye that wont go away, a topical antibiotic cream or ointment may be necessary.

Erythromycin is the most commonly prescribed topical antibiotic for styes.

If the bacterial infection spreads to other parts of the eye or is persistent even after using the antibiotic cream, a doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics.

Common ones prescribed for styes include:

Even if a stye goes away, be sure to complete the full course of antibiotics to prevent the infection from coming back.

Unilateral Or Bilateral Conjunctivitis

Allergic conjunctivitis is almost always secondary to environmental allergens and, therefore, usually presents with bilateral symptoms.2 Infections caused by viruses and bacteria are transmissible by eye-hand contact. Often, these infections initially present in one eye, with the second eye becoming involved a few days later.

Since chronic unilateral conjunctivitis can have a number of causes, it often presents a difficult diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, patients with this condition should be referred for full ophthalmic assessment to rule out less common entities, such as keratitis, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, occult foreign body and conjunctival neoplasia .


Sebaceous cell carcinoma that is invading the conjunctiva and the superficial cornea. The patient was initially referred for the evaluation of chronic unilateral conjunctivitis.


Sebaceous cell carcinoma that is invading the conjunctiva and the superficial cornea. The patient was initially referred for the evaluation of chronic unilateral conjunctivitis.

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Eye Drops Or Ointment

Before using chloramphenicol, tell you doctor if youâre using other eye drops or ointment, or if you normally wear contact lenses. Itâs also important to speak to your doctor if you have:

  • any problems with your eyesight, or severe eye pain
  • swollen eyes, and a rash on your face or head
  • are allergic to polyethylene glycol

Table 5 Oral Fluoroquinolone Dosing

Tetracycline Eye Ointment USP 1%

Levofloxacin 500mg to 750mg BID x 10 days** * Coverage for resistant S. pneumoniae may not be sufficient.20-21,27-28** Choose only if P. aeruginosa is suspected or documented.19-21

Gemifloxacin and moxifloxacin. As members of the respiratory fluoroquinolone group, gemifloxacin and moxifloxacin have bacterial coverage similar to levofloxacin. Occasionally, a Strep. pneumoniae isolate may be more sensitive to one agent than another in this group however, they are generally considered fairly equivalent from an empiric treatment perspective. In some situations levofloxacin and moxifloxacin may have slightly broader coverage against highly resistant Strep. species. While less well known, both gemifloxacin and levofloxacin are generally considered interchangeable with levofloxacin in the management of gram-positive infections. Levofloxacin has slightly improved gram-negative activity.20,21,27,28

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Uses For Eye Drops What They Treat When They Are Necessary

Doctors prescribe antibiotic drops to treat a variety of eye infections. The formulas have prophylactic properties and help prevent infections, especially after eye surgery.

Not all eye infections respond to antibiotic drops, including ones caused by viruses or fungi. But the most common infections that drops fight are:

  • Bacterial conjunctivitis. Also known as pink eye, it is the most prevalent eye infection. It is the infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin layer of tissue covering the whites of your eyes and the insides of your eyelids. Bacterial conjunctivitis commonly affects children.
  • Infectious endophthalmitis. An infection of the tissue or fluid inside your eye that requires immediate medical attention. It occurs when your eyes protective surface is compromised, and bacteria get inside the eye.
  • Styes. An infection of the eyelids, often in an eyelash follicle or oil glands on the eyelid. If you touch your eye with unwashed hands, the bacteria can cause styes.
  • Bacterial corneal infection . An infection of the cornea.
  • Gonococcal conjunctivitis. An infection of the conjunctiva caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is uncommon and mostly affects sexually active young adults and neonates.
  • Blepharitis. Inflammation of the eyelids caused by bacterial infection, allergies or clogged oil glands.
  • Cellulitis. This is an infection that can affect the skin around the eyes.

Are Some Dogs More Susceptible To Inner Ear Infection

Dogs with long, heavy ears seem to be predisposed to chronic ear infections that can ultimately lead to otitis interna. Spaniel breeds, such as the Cocker Spaniel, and hound breeds, such as the Bloodhound and Basset Hound, are the most commonly affected breeds. Regardless of breed, any dog with a chronic ear infection that is difficult to control may develop otitis interna if the eardrum is damaged, as a damaged ear drum allows bacteria to migrate down into the inner ear.

Dogs with long, heavy ears seem to be predisposed to chronic ear infections that ultimately lead to otitis interna.

Excessively vigorous cleaning of an infected external ear canal can sometimes cause otitis interna. Some ear cleansers are irritating to the middle and inner ear and can cause signs of otitis interna if the eardrum is damaged and allows some of the solution to penetrate too deeply.

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Symptoms Of Eye Infections

Many eye conditions share similar symptoms. Common symptoms of infection include squinting, redness in and around the eye, and unusual, excessive or discolored eye discharge. Any of these symptoms may occur in one or both eyes. If symptoms occur in both eyes, this is often a sign of allergies and not infection, according to WebMD.

How Are Eye Infections In Cats Treated

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Your vet will determine the best treatment for your cat’s eye infection based upon the results of the examination and of your cat’s overall health.

If the eye infection is the primary concern your vet may recommend a topical treatment for your cat’s eye such as Terramycin® or Vetropolycin®.

If however your cat’s eye infection is due to an underlying condition such as FeLV or Calicivirus the underlying condition may be the main focus of the treatment. Treatments for underlying conditions will depend upon the nature of the illness but may include oral antibiotics, immune boosters or other treatments.

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Treating Viral And Bacterial Conjunctivitis In Cats

The most common cause of conjunctivitis in cats is feline herpes virus . Most cats are exposed to the feline herpes virus within the first few weeks of life. At the time of exposure, kittens may develop conjunctivitis .

Figure 1. Cat with conjunctivitis: blepharoedema, chemosis, hyperemia and tearing

Viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and often does not require treatment. If the symptoms do not resolve, treatment with a topical and/or oral antiviral is indicated. Idoxuridine 0.1% and Cidofovir 0.2% are the two most common topical antiviral medications used in cats. Both are compounded and generally used twice daily. Additionally, Famciclovir is an oral antiviral medication that is safe to use in cats. The recommended dose is 125mg to 250mg PO BID, however dosing up to 90mg/kg PO TID is safe in cats. Topical and oral antiviral medications can be used together. Because antiviral medications do not kill the virus, it can take several days and up to 1 to 2 weeks to note significant improvement of clinical signs.

Antiviral medications slow viral replication allowing the immune system to control virus shedding. Slowly tapering viral medication is recommended to limit recrudescence. Flare-ups occur because the feline herpes virus remains latent in the cornea and the trigeminal ganglia.

Figure 2. Fibrinous uveitis in a cat infected with Bartonella henselae

How Long Does Pink Eye Last How Long Is It Contagious

Each type of pink eye can last for different time frames.

  • Viral conjunctivitis can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks to resolve.
  • Bacterial pink eye can take a few days to a week to heal the use of antibiotic drops shortens that time.
  • Allergic pink eye usually clears up as other allergy symptoms lessen or after the allergen or irritant is removed.
  • Conjunctivitis caused by a virus or bacteria is highly contagious. It remains so until the symptoms have disappeared or, in the case of bacterial pink eye, for 24-48 hours after antibiotic treatment.

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Treatment Of Bacterial Eye Infections

Antibiotic eye drops or ointments are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial keratitis and bacterial conjunctivitis. You should notice an improvement in your symptoms within a few days. Call your doctor if your symptoms don’t improve after a few days of using antibiotic eye drops.

Some of the antibiotic drops that are used to treat bacterial eye infections include gentamicin , ciprofloxacin , tobramycin , bacitracin , moxifloxacin , gatifloxacin , azithromycin , ofloxacin ophthalmic , and polymyxin B/trimethoprim .

If you have a bacterial eye infection, your doctor may ask you to apply 1-2 drops of antibiotic eye drops every 2 to 4 hours for the first 2 days and then every 6-8 hours for up to 7 days. Follow the exact instructions by your doctor or ophthalmologist, and do not stop using the eye drops sooner than the prescribed length of therapy.

Why Not Treat With Antibiotics Straight Away

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In the past, this was the approach that many doctors used for most infections. In fact, it was also common practice to treat with antibiotics to prevent infections . But overuse of antibiotics has led to a serious public health issue where bacteria are becoming resistant to the drugs that are available. This is because the more that organisms are exposed to antibiotics, the more likely it is that some will mutate so that they can survive the attack by the drug. These drug-resistant superbugs are highly dangerous because they can cause deadly infections.

Due to the increasing issue of antibiotic resistance, doctors now try to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. This includes making sure that the cause of an infection is bacterial before prescribing antibiotics, and not using antibiotics when the infection is mild and will resolve on its own.

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Is Neosporin Safe For Cats

Human medications are often toxic or otherwise dangerous for animals, especially cats. Their compact size means that even the tiniest amounts of a toxic substance could put your cat’s life at risk.

Neosporin is a staple found in many people’s first aid kits. This topical antibiotic ointment can work very well on humans but it not recommended for cats. Cases have been reported of cats having life-threatening anaphylactic reactions to some of the antibiotic ingredients in Neosporin’s ophthalmic preparations which include neomycin and polymyxin B.

How Long Does Pink Eye Last

While the good news is that in most cases pink eye resolves on its own, you’re likely wondering how long this may take. If you have mild bacterial conjunctivitis, this will likely start to clear up without treatment within about two to five days. Still, it may take as long as two weeks for this to completely dissipate.

Meanwhile, if you have a mild case of viral conjunctivitis, this will take a week or two to go away in most cases. But for some this may take as much as two or even three weeks to resolve.

Antibiotics won’t do anything to help with viral conjunctivitis. But if you have a more serious virus such as herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus causing the virus, your healthcare provider can prescribe antiviral medication to help combat these.

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