Characteristics Of Study Respondents
During the study period, we distributed 171,335 questionnaire links, and 107,650 participants from 31 Chinese mainland provinces completed the online questionnaire, with a response rate of 62.83%. Of them, 6530 who failed to pass the quality control questions were excluded. Finally, 101,120 respondents were included in the analysis. The mean age of the respondents was 30.43 years. Over half were female , unmarried , and living in urban area . As for geographic location, 55, 22, and 23% lived in the eastern, central, and western China, respectively. Furthermore, 68% had an associate or bachelor degree, 91% had health insurance, 50% was employed, as well as 59% reported that their economic status was fair. Nearly one seventh of them suffered from physician-diagnosed chronic diseases, and 42% had searched for health information online in the past 3 months. Respondents characteristics are detailed in Table 1.
TABLE 1. Residents characteristics and their associations with antibiotic purchase online in the past 3 months.
Implications For Health Policy And Planning
Only a few dispensers and clinicians had specific knowledge of policies regarding antibiotics. Policies addressing the widespread use/misuse of antibiotics OTC in Nepal were regarded ambiguous and poorly enforced. Specifically, lack of stringent policies regulating dispensing of antibiotics, and ambiguity in prescription versus dispensing require urgent attention. Clinicians also reflected on the lack of adequate health infrastructure and the essential nature of antibiotics in terms of preventing deaths due to infectious diseases. This resonates with the broader recognition that antibiotics are often crutches for fractured health system infrastructure, poverty, poor water and sanitation, and high burden of infectious diseases. Thus, policies around antibiotic use and their implementation is paramount for judicious investment in building robust health system with universal health coverage. Restricting OTC use of antibiotics alone without universal health coverage may have adverse consequences. Because the bulk of the antibiotics are dispensed through the drug shops, providing regular training to the dispensers, for instance, through the stewardship of local and regional health authorities together with the broader community and stakeholder engagement, is critical to reduce inappropriate demands for antibiotics and facilitate the good practice in antibiotic dispensing.
Note That The Desired Antibiotic May Be Sold On Online Pharmacies Under An Alternative Brand Name For Example One Of The Best Penicillin Antibiotics Amoxicillin Is Sold Under Dozens Of Different Brand Names Including:
- Trimox, Utimox, Wymox, Polymox, Larotid, Moxatag, Dispermox, Amoxil, Amox, Apo-Amoxi, Novamoxin, Nu-Amoxi, Pro Amox, Respillin, Rimoxallin.
Right now, you may buy branded antibiotics, produced by global pharmaceutical corporations, or order cheaper generic antibiotics, produced by the leaders of the regional pharmaceutical markets.
To purchase antibiotics without a prescription, you do not need to pay for medical services, fill out a medical questionnaire, or specify the name of your doctor. Therefore, when buying branded or generic antibiotics online without a prescription, you will remain anonymous and maintain a guaranteed confidentiality of your order.
Order the prescribed antibiotic right now, and it will be delivered to you as soon as possible. IF you select the express delivery of an antibiotic, you will get it the next day, and promptly begin the antibiotic therapy, thus achieving a faster success in the fight against the bacterial infection.
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Buy Antibiotics From Mexico:
Selling prescription medicines to Americans is a huge industry in Mexico. The main shopping streets in border towns such as Tijuana and Nagales are lined with pharmacies. Here is a short account:
We took a bus from downtown San Diego across the border to Tijuana, Mexico. There, we were able to buy 14 tablets of brand-name Cipro 500 mg for $35.00 US. 96 capsules of Amoxicillin 500mg went for $18.95. Levaquin was harder to find but we were able to buy 15 tablets of the generic for about $25.00.South of the border you can walk into any drugstore and buy antibiotics over-the-counter. Its just like buying Tylenol or Advil. No prescriptions are needed and nobody asks any questions. So, if you live within driving distance of the Mexican border this is a piece of cake.
Policies On Antibiotic Use
Awareness of antibiotic prescribing policy was fairly consistent among the respondents. Dispensers explained that all medicines, except for narcotics and the medicines for mental health, could be sold at drug shops without a clinicianâs prescription. A few were aware that some of the medicines that they sell need a prescription from health workers:
â¦ come under Group C so it can be sold and also it needs prescription .
To meet the legal requirements to dispense antibiotics, many of drug shops offer an appointment with healthcare providers, such as physician, health assistant, community medicine assistant or auxiliary nurse midwife , who are certified for clinical decision-making to varying degrees. These clinicians generally work within the local clinics/hospitals. However, dispensers often dispensed all available antibiotics on their behalf from drug shops without their prescription, and without taking a full history, physical examination or laboratory investigation:
If we look in most of the pharmacies, only a single person dispensing medicines is a pharmacist, whereas he is helped by CMAs or ANMs on paper. CMAs and ANMs have mostly covered the pharmacies. What shall I say they are allowed to prescribe medicines but are not allowed to sell it ?
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Otc Dispensing And Its Implications
Drug shops are a recognised part of health system infrastructure in LMICs, including Nepal. They reach a large population, offering an immediate and cost-effective service through OTC medication. Drug shops are often run by under-qualified non-professionals, such as non-pharmacists, which can lead to sub-optimal care and undesired outcomes for patients. Dispensersâ lack of follow-up and advice to visit doctors if not cured has several ramifications. This practice ostensibly encourages patients/customers to visit doctors, but it also acts as a safety net for dispensers to avoid accountability for the prognosis and the adverse outcomes of the medicine sold. If patients/customers recover, the drug shops and the drug dispensers gain easy goodwill if not, their advice to visit doctors simply insulates them from patientsâ or their familys’ complaints.
Patientsâ visits and interactions at drug shops resemble retail transactions. Patients used past medicine strips or blisters, old prescriptions, name of the medicines, and symptoms as hints to prompt pharmacists or drug dispensers to sell specific medicines. Financial incentives to dispensers also played a role in dispensing practices to the extent that particular medicines sometimes exceeded patients or customersâ needs . Representatives from pharmaceutical companies were recognised as playing a role here: they incentivise to increase the sale of their particular brands of drugs.
Prevalence Of Antibiotic Purchase Online In The Past Three Months
The overall weighted prevalence of antibiotic purchase online in the past 3 months was 3.71% . Additionally, the weighted prevalence was more than 6% among those who were aged 65 years or older, and who had a graduate degree or higher education level, reported an excellent economic status, or searched for health information online. Whereas, there was no difference in the prevalence among residents with different marital or insurance status, as well as among those who lived in different regions of China. Table 1 presents the results of frequency and prevalence of antibiotic purchase online in the past 3 months among residents according to their characteristics. Supplementary Figure S1 shows the prevalence of online antibiotic purchases in each province of China.
Read Also: What’s The Best Antibiotic For Abscess Tooth
How Long Does It Take For Amoxicillin To Start Working
This antibiotic will start to take effect as soon as you take it, you may however not start to feel better for a few days. It is very important that you complete your full course of antibiotics, even if you start to feel better sooner. If you don’t, there is a risk that not all the bacteria have been killed and the infection may return. Even worse, any remaining bacteria may also become resistant to the antibiotic taken and therefore will no longer respond as well to it.
Ethics Approval And Consent To Practice
This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Rift Valley University with approval number RVU-Sop217/2020. Written informed consent was also obtained from the study participants before commencing the study. Participants information was kept confidential.
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Are There Antibiotics You Can Get Over The Counter
Yes, there are antibiotics that you can get over the counter. These can be found at any local drug store or grocery store pharmacy. That said, only certain types of antibiotics, such as topical antibiotics, are available over the counter. Stronger antibiotics, such as oral antibiotics, require a prescription from a doctor.
Antibiotics can be given via different routes in and on the body. There are invasive and less invasive ways to administer antibiotics.
The four types of antibiotic administration routes include:
Less invasive administration routes of antibiotics include topical routes. Many topical antibiotics are available over the counter. These antibiotics are creams that are spread onto the skin to treat minor scrapes, wounds, acne, and burns.
Topical over-the-counter antibiotics include:
All antibiotics have risks of use as well as benefits. Antibiotics can cause other problems, including gut microbiome disturbance, side effects such as vomiting, and can interact with other medicines you take. Because of the complexity of oral antibiotic use, it is no surprise that you need a prescription from a medical doctor.
Antibiotics Are Critical After A Crisis
During a humanitarian crisis, whether its the result of war or natural disaster, communicable diseases pose a serious risk to the surviving population. Its the risks associated with population displacement that causes problems.
According to a study from the National Library of Medicine:
The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population.
So, the breakdown in infrastructure and cleanliness leads to a spread in infectious diseases. An earthquake, as an example, destroys infrastructure and displaces people, which then gives way to disease outbreaks because people are huddled together in an unsanitary environment.
Examples include an outbreak of norovirus in Texas after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks during the Syrian conflict beginning in 2013.
In other parts of the world, cholera remains a serious problem. Its an acute diarrheal disease that can kill within hours if left untreated. Severe cases require you guessed it antibiotic treatment. What is considered a problem only in developing countries could quickly create problems in modern countries following a local or national catastrophe.
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Antibiotic Use Without Prescription Common In Us
5 Min Read
– Many people in the U.S. take antibiotics that werent prescribed for them, according to a new study that highlights one factor that may be contributing to the rise of antibiotic resistant infections.
A growing number of germs around the world are already resistant to antibiotics, making it increasingly difficult to treat infections that were once easy to combat with medications. While much of this problem is caused by doctors prescribing antibiotics to patients who dont need them, people who use these drugs without seeing a doctor first are also part of the problem.
For the current study, researchers examined data from 31 previously published studies to assess nonprescription antibiotic use in the U.S. and the factors that may contribute to it.
One in four people had already used antibiotics without a prescription or intended to, the analysis found.
Up to almost half of people had stored antibiotics for future use or intended to do so, saving medicines prescribed for them or perhaps for a child, parent, or other family member, the study also found.
Our findings show that people obtain antibiotics without a prescription in the U.S. from flea markets, health food stores, friends or relatives, pet stores or online, said Dr. Larissa Grigoryan, lead author of the study and a researcher at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.
SOURCE: bit.ly/30QcfmM Annals of Internal Medicine, online July 22, 2019.
You Cant Buy Antibiotics Over The Counter Can You
In yesterdays post analyzing the Food and Drug Administrations report on sales of antibiotics for use on farms in 2014, I noted that almost 99 percent of the antibiotics sold for agricultural use are sold over the counter, that is, without a prescription.
The FDA is attempting to change this, via an updated rule called the Veterinary Feed Directive once that rule is finalized, livestock producers should only be able to obtain antibiotics once they have an order from a veterinarian. The goal here is to build more accountability into antibiotics purchase and use, because any misuse creates the possibility of resistance and there is more use of antibiotics in agriculture, by sheer volume, than in human medicine.
As often happens when I talk about this, I ran into some disbelief: people protesting that, come on, surely you cant just walk into a store and buy antibiotics, can you?
In response, I posted a picture of two pounds of aureomycin that I bought online without anyone asking me anything except my credit card number.
Up top, Ive put together a quick slideshow. The answer to the question, Is it really as easy as it seems to buy antibiotics over the counter, and to use them without anyone looking over your shoulder to make sure you use them correctly?, is: Yes, actually, it is. Click through to see what we found.
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Ways To Buy Antibiotics Without A Prescription
Stocking antibiotics for a catastrophe has been a topic of conversation among preppers for as long as Ive been writing about prepping . The challenge, of course, is trying to buy antibiotics without a prescription. Its impossible, right?
Not exactly. It can be done, but it requires unconventional approaches.
Ill explain, but lets back up for a second.
Take Antibiotics With Caution
If you decide to use a natural antibiotic, always proceed with caution. Taking an antibiotic when you do not really need to can eliminate healthy gut bacteria, which takes time to replace. For those that are pregnant or breastfeeding, you should always talk to your doctor before trying any natural remedies.
When using the natural antibiotics described, always use them in moderation. They are not intended for daily consumption, at least not at the levels that you need to use them as antibiotics. Only use the antibiotic for one to two weeks and make sure that you also take a probiotic to begin rebuilding healthy bacteria in your digestive system.
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Data Quality Control And Management
To ensure data quality, training on the topic, and purpose of the research, on how to approach study subjects, and how to use the questionnaire was given for 1 day for the data collectors. A pretest was conducted at pharmacy retail outlets found outside the study area to modify the questionnaire. The collected data were checked for completeness, accuracy, and clarity daily after data collection, and correction measure was made before the next data collection.
What Our Customers Say
I was a little leery of ordering my dog’s meds online, but the reviews seemed positive and the price was right. I placed an order for my dog’s meds on Sunday, but I didn’t confirm it until yesterday . It was processed yesterday afternoon and I received it today. The customer service representative I dealt with was very helpful and responsive. And the price was $100 less than I would have paid at my vet. So far I am impressed!
Placed my order and received an email with follow-up questions to confirm some details about my dog, his treatment and needs within minutes. Got the medication he needed within a day and paid less than half of what my vet would have charged me, not to mention the “examination fee” of coming in to get a refill of meds. Won’t be getting his medications anywhere else now. Thanks! 🙂
I am so grateful to having found your service, thank you for saving me tons of money, and my dog thanks you too. Saving 50% on his insulin makes me breath much easier not to mention sleep.
- Address: 80 Glen Shields Ave, Unit 1
- Concord Ontario L4K 1T7
- Fax: 905-669-5454
- Designated Manager: Alice Rusli
A licenced pharmacist is in the store Monday-Friday 9:30am-9pm and Saturdays 9:30-5pm. However, not all staff have “pet experience”. Please contact us Monday-Friday 10am-4pm to address any “pet” questions or concerns.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Antibiotics
The most common side effects of antibiotics affect the digestive tract. These include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, indigestion, and loss of appetite. Rarely an allergic reaction to antibiotics occurs, especially with penicillin and cyclosporine. The symptoms include wheezing, coughing, itchy skin rash, and tightness of the throat.
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Order Online From Other Countries Where Human Antibiotics Can Be Bought Over The Counter
As long as the online store is located in a country that does not require a doctors prescription for a drug , they can legally sell you antibiotics without a prescription.
On the other hand, you are breaking the law. But importing non-prescribed antibiotics over the internet is a very low priority for the authorities.
Yesterday I ordered for the first time human antibiotics from an online shop . I called first and asked if they know what do Americans risk when buying antibiotics from them?
They replied that in 9 years of their existence , they never had a problem with that . And if the package does not arrive they can send it again at no costs for the customers.
So here are 4 places where you can buy antibiotics online from other countries:
Although I made an order myself, I dont endorse these websites in any way! I wont guarantee for the products that they are selling or their safety.
On most of them youll find generic antibiotics.