Amines In Probiotic Foods May Trigger Headaches
Some probiotic-rich foods, like yogurt, sauerkraut and kimchi, contain biogenic amines (11,
Amines can excite the central nervous system, increase or decrease blood flow and may trigger headaches in people sensitive to the substance .
One study found that low-histamine diets reduced headaches in 75% of participants. However, a review of 10 controlled studies found no significant effect of dietary amines on headaches .
More research is needed to determine whether or not amines can be direct triggers of headaches or migraines in some people.
Keeping a food diary including any headache symptoms you might experience can help clarify whether fermented foods are problematic for you.
If probiotic-rich foods trigger your symptoms, a probiotic supplement may be a better choice.
Fermented foods rich in probiotics naturally contain amines. Some people may experience headaches after eating these foods, and should instead opt for probiotic supplements.
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Antibiotics Are Not A Cure
Antibiotics should only be used for specific bacterial infections. Taking antibiotics only when appropriate can help fight antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses and cannot be used to treat infections like influenza or COVID-19.
You should also be sure to always take your full course of antibiotics. Don’t save them in case you get sick laterantibiotics you take for one infection may not work on another. You should also never share your antibiotics with anyone else or use antibiotics that were not prescribed to you.
Antibiotics Are Medications Used For The Treatment Of Bacterial Infections But Long
Antibiotics are medications commonly prescribed by doctors for the treatment of various illnesses. These medications can be either synthesized in the laboratory or produced naturally by other microorganisms. Antibiotics work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. They are usually prescribed for 7 to 14 days. However, in certain cases, especially in long-term illnesses a prolonged use of antibiotics is recommended, which is normally associated with various side effects. For this reason, it is very important for your healthcare provider to weigh the cons when it comes to side effects of long-term use, as well as the pros.
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What Are The Most Common Side Effects Of Antibiotics
All medications have side effects, including antibiotics. Antibiotics are medications that treat infections by killing bacteria or other organisms or slowing their growth. An antibiotic side effect occurs as an unwanted reaction that occurs in addition to the desirable therapeutic action of the antibiotic you are taking.
Side effects of antibiotics can range from mild allergic reactions to severe and debilitating adverse events. When used appropriately, most antibiotics are relatively safe with few side effects. However, some side effects may interfere with your ability to finish the medication. In these cases, you should contact your doctor.
Common side effects with antibiotics include:
- Mild skin rash or other allergic reactions
- Soft stools, short-term diarrhea
- Fungal vaginal infections or oral thrush
More severe antibiotic side effects include:
- Severe allergic reaction that results in difficulty breathing, facial swelling
- Severe watery or bloody diarrhea Clostridium difficileinfection
- Stomach cramps
- Yeast infections in the mouth or vagina
These side effects are extremely variable however, there are some common side effects that may occur within larger antibiotic drug classes, as described in Table 1. Long term side effects of antibiotics can occur, but are infrequent.
How Long Do Amoxicillin Side Effects Last
Amoxicillin is only given for a few days. Most side effects are temporary and will fade when treatment ends. Some amoxicillin side effects, however, are delayed and may take longer to resolve, such as allergic reactions and blood disorders. Clostridium difficile infection can be delayed for up to two months after amoxicillin treatment has stopped. Some side effects may require medical treatment such as yeast infections, allergic reactions, blood problems, superinfections, or C. difficile infection.
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What The Study Found
Using national data on emergency room visits between 2011 and 2015, CDC researchers estimated that 69,464 annual visits were made by children younger than 19 who were experiencing antibiotic-related “adverse events.”
The vast majority of these events86.1 percentinvolved some kind of allergic reaction. Fleming-Dutra notes that there was a broad spectrum of what could constitute an allergic reaction, from anaphylaxisthe severe, life-threatening condition often seen with peanut or bee-sting allergiesto mild rashes and gastrointestinal issues. Seventy-seven percent of all the problems counted in the study were considered “mild allergic events.”
The antibiotic side effects that were not allergic reactions were most commonly things like diarrhea and diaper rash in younger children and gastrointestinal issues, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, in older children. Headaches and yeast infections were less common reactions, and certain antibiotics produced rare side effects like light sensitivity.
The researchers observed the most adverse events among children younger than 2fully 1 in 400 children two or younger visits the ER each year with a reaction to antibiotics. The older the child, the less likely they were to have a negative reaction to antibiotics.
Should I Try Probiotics
If you are interested in adding probiotics to your diet, its worth a conversation with your healthcare provider. Many providers may suggest giving them a try to see if they help with your general health. It is important to remember that not all probiotics behave the same way and have the same effects. Each has their own individual benefits. They generally dont cause harm. One easy way to start can be by simply introducing probiotic-rich foods into your diet, like yogurt.
Before you start any supplements, make sure you talk to your healthcare provider. Your provider may be able to point you in the right direction, helping you figure out the best probiotic to take, how much to take and when to take it. A conversation is always worth the time when it concerns your health.
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What Are Severe Side Effects Of Antibiotics In Children
Severe antibiotic side effects may include:
- Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction that includes symptoms like swelling, difficulty breathing, and reduced blood pressure.
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome: This is a severe hypersensitivity reaction. Children may develop flu-like symptoms, painful sores, swelling of the face, and light sensitivity.
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis : This is a severe form of Stevens-Johnson syndrome that may include symptoms such as excessive skin blistering and peeling.
- Muscle pain: Children taking antibiotics may feel general muscle aches and pains.
- Clostridium difficile infections: This specific bacteria is common in children who have recently taken antibiotics and can cause diarrhea.
- Red man syndrome: This reaction may occur in children who are on the antibiotic vancomycin. Symptoms may include itchy skin, a rash, fever, chest pain, and breathing difficulties.
- Ototoxicity: Some antibiotics can lead to temporary or permanent hearing loss.
- Pill esophagitis: A child’s esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach, can become irritated by an antibiotic pill and lead to pain and difficulty swallowing.
- : Many antibiotics, like doxycycline, can make children more sensitive to the sun.
- Drug-induced lupus: Children can develop symptoms of the autoimmune disorder systemic lupus erythematosus while taking certain medications, such as the antibiotic minocycline.
Allergic Reactions To Antibiotics
If you are allergic to antibiotics, you get signs and symptoms like a rash, swelling of the face or difficulty breathing.
A severe allergic reaction is known as anaphylaxis, and usually occurs within an hour of taking an antibiotic. A severe allergic reaction is a medical emergency requiring immediate medical attention. You may need to call triple zero and perform first aid.
The symptoms of anaphylaxis are:
- difficult/noisy breathing
- pale and floppy
Sometimes you can get less dangerous symptoms before an anaphylaxis, such as:
- swelling of the face, lips and/or eyes
- abdominal pain or vomiting
The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy recommends that for a severe allergic reaction adrenaline is the initial treatment. If you are allergic to antibiotics you may be instructed by a doctor how to avoid triggers and if severe may instruct you how to use a self-administered adrenalin injection such as EpiPen®. The doctor will record the allergy and type of reaction in your notes and electronic health records and will give you an anaphylaxis action plan.
Most allergies are caused by penicillin or antibiotics closely related to penicillin, or by another type of antibiotic called sulfonamides.
Feeling nauseous and vomiting after taking antibiotics is usually a side-effect of the medicine, rather than an allergic reaction.
If you have any other concerns about antibiotics, including possible side effects, contact your doctor.
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Unusual Bleeding Or Bruising
Bleeding under the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny pinpoint red or discolored dots . Blood can also collect under the tissue in larger flat areas , or in a very large bruised area .
Amoxicillin can increase the risk of bleeding. If youre experiencing either unusual bleeding or bruising, see a doctor immediately. Internal bleeding may be occurring, which could lead to bleeding in the digestive system, or, in rare cases, the brain.
To prevent this, tell your doctor if youre on anticoagulants or blood thinners before you start taking amoxicillin.
If you experience this side effect of amoxicillin, its considered a rare but serious side effect. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.
Amoxicillin Side Effects And How To Avoid Them
Amoxicillin side effects | Hypersensitivity | Superinfections | Clostridium difficile | How long do side effects last? | Warnings | Interactions | How to avoid side effects
Amoxicillin is a generic antibiotic that treats a wide range of bacterial infections: upper respiratory tract infections such as sinusitis, lung infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia, skin infections, middle ear infections, urinary tract infections, as well as H. pylori stomach infections.
Also prescribed under the brand names Amoxil and , amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that kills bacteria by blocking their ability to make and repair their protective cell walls. For most infections, amoxicillin will only be given for a few days. Many people taking amoxicillin will experience minor side effects, but serious side effects, and drug interactions with existing medical conditions are also possible.
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What Antibiotics Can And Cant Do
Most bacteria that live in your body are harmless. Some are even helpful. Still, bacteria can infect almost any organ. Fortunately, antibiotics can usually help.
These are the types of infections that can be treated with antibiotics:
- Some ear and sinus infections
- Dental infections
- Clostridioides difficile
Only bacterial infections can be killed with antibiotics. The common cold, flu, most coughs, some bronchitis infections, most sore throats, and the stomach flu are all caused by viruses. Antibiotics wonât work to treat them. Your doctor will tell you either to wait these illnesses out or prescribe antiviral drugs to help you get rid of them.
Itâs not always obvious whether an infection is viral or bacterial. Sometimes your doctor will do tests before deciding which treatment you need.
Some antibiotics work on many different kinds of bacteria. Theyâre called âbroad-spectrum.â Others target specific bacteria only. Theyâre known as ânarrow-spectrum.â
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Antibiotics To Prevent Infection
Antibiotics are sometimes given as a precaution to prevent, rather than treat, an infection. This is known as antibiotic prophylaxis.
Antibiotic prophylaxis is normally recommended if you’re having surgery on a certain part of the body which carries a high risk of infection or where infection could lead to devastating effects.
For example, it may be used if you’re going to have:
- some types of eye surgery such as cataract surgery or glaucoma surgery
- joint replacement surgery
Your surgical team will be able to tell you if you require antibiotic prophylaxis.
Antibiotics By Mechanism Of Action
Different types of antibiotics work against bacteria in different ways. Below are some examples.
Antibiotics that destroy cell walls:
- Beta-lactam antibiotics
Antibiotics that prevent bacteria from reproducing:
Some antibiotics work best on certain types of bacteria. Mainly, these are classified as antibiotics that target gram-positive bacteria with a simple cell wall, and those that target the more complex gram-negative bacteria.
Your healthcare provider may treat you with a broad-spectrum antibiotic that works against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but some infections may require a culture test to identify the specific form of bacteria. By identifying the exact type of bacteria that’s causing your illness, your healthcare provider can prescribe you the form of antibiotic that’s most effect against that particular bacteria.
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What Parents Should Know
Sawyer says discussion of the pros and cons of antibiotics has increased in recent years, and that fewer physicians are prescribing them needlessly for, say, viral infections.
And the growing body of research on the risk of antibiotic side effects and the harms of overusethe CDC published a similar study on adverse reactions in 2016can help shift the conversation between parents and doctors.
“I think nervous parents can sometimes push and push pediatricians for antibiotics, because they’re seen as a quick-fix for all kinds of sickness,” he says. “Studies like this can help people understand they aren’t always the answer.”
The next time you bring your child to the pediatrician, either with an ailment that may require antibiotics, or with symptoms of an adverse reaction to the drugs, here are some things you should know.
Coughs and runny noses typically do not require antibiotics. These drugs can’t do anything to fight colds and other viruses. If your child’s symptoms are severe, you can certainly bring them to the doctorjust know that antibiotics probably won’t be the answer.
Sore throats are not treatable with antibiotics, unless your child has strep. Parents sometimes assume a child’s sore throat is caused by the bacteria streptococci , and is therefore treatable with antibiotics. In roughly 80 percent of cases, however, sore throats are viral in origin. Your pediatrician should test for strep before prescribing antibiotics.
When Is The Best Time To Take Probiotics
As with many supplements and medications, there are certain times and factors that can change their efficacy, for good or bad. Research shows that the best time to take a probiotic is 30 minutes before a meal. Consistency is key when it comes to taking a probiotic and experiencing as many of the potential health benefits as possible. This means that it is necessary to take it daily to ensure routine and regular replenishment of the guts bacteria.
The stomach is a highly acidic environment, which can make it difficult for many supplements to pass through in their most bioavailable form. The same is true for probiotics. Look for a high-quality probiotic that uses time-release tablets to deliver its bacteria safely to the gut.
The composition of your meal can also help or hinder your probiotics efficacy. A large meal will move more slowly through the stomach and trigger more stomach acid production. If your probiotic is taken along or prior to this type of meal, the probiotic will move more slowly and be exposed to a hostile environment for longer.
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Important Facts About Antibiotics
The following points are critical to remember when taking any antibiotic:
How Long Amoxicillin Lasts In The Body
It only takes a little over an hour for the dose of amoxicillin in your body to be reduced by half.
This is called the medicines half-life, and its shorter than other antibiotics.
Amoxicillin is primarily excreted via the kidneys and urine.
Within 8 hours of taking the drug, 60% of it has already been passed from the body.
Because elimination of amoxicillin primarily happens via the kidneys, it may last longer or need to be dosed differently in those who have kidney disease, so make sure to mention that to your prescriber
After your last dose of amoxicillin, you can expect that it will be mostly gone from your body within 8 hours.
After 12 hours, there should be none left in your system.
This is one reason its important to take your medication as prescribed.
If you cut your course of antibiotics short, within 8-12 hours the bacteria causing your infection could start to ramp up again.
This can contribute to the development of drug-resistant bacteria and more severe infection.
Your antibiotic prescription is designed to effectively address the bacteria completely before the drug is out of your body.
This is why dosage and the number of days you will take amoxicillin are important.
Take the medication as prescribed, and dont stop until your course is complete or your doctor says to stop.
If you have leftover medication at the end of your course of treatment, discard it.
Do not flush it down the toilet.
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