Active Ingredients Of Antibiotics For Urinary Tract Infections
There are several different types of antibiotics that can be used, if they are needed, to treat urinary tract infections. The best antibiotic for your infection will depend on the type of infection you have and what bacteria are causing it.
Antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections
|May be prescribed for:
Antibiotics Used For Uncomplicated Utis
If you are a healthy individual whose urinary tract is anatomically and functionally normal and you have no known heightened UTI susceptibility youve got whats dubbed an uncomplicated UTI, according to guidelines published in August 2019 in the Journal of Urology. For these individuals, antibiotics are considered the first-line of treatment.
The type of antibiotics you are prescribed and for how long is contingent on the type of bacteria detected in your urine, your current health status, and whether your UTI is uncomplicated or complicated. Depending on which antibiotic your doctor prescribes, women may need a single dose or up to a five-day course. For men, antibiotics are usually given for a slightly longer period of time, notes UpToDate.
Typically, if you are diagnosed with an uncomplicated UTI, one of the following will be prescribed as first-line treatment:
The following antibiotics are considered second-line treatments for UTI. They are generally chosen because of resistance patterns or allergy considerations:
Check If It’s A Urinary Tract Infection
Symptoms of a UTI may include:
- pain or a burning sensation when peeing
- needing to pee more often than usual during the night
- pee that looks cloudy
- needing to pee suddenly or more urgently than usual
- needing to pee more often than usual
- lower tummy pain or pain in your back, just under the ribs
- a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
- a very low temperature below 36C
Also Check: How Soon Should Antibiotics Work For Uti
The Process Of Treatment Guideline Development
The committee determined the method of treatment guideline development. The basic objective was to update the Korean guideline developed in 2011. For the existing key questions from the guideline, study findings that were published after the guideline was developed in 2011 were searched and added to the guideline, and the level of recommendation was determined. In addition, important questions that required additional findings were answered using the adaptation method. For questions regarding uncomplicated cystitis, the adaptation method was used. For the remaining four diseases, key questions were summarized and partially revised in the guideline.
1) Guideline search
Guidelines for the five diseases that were developed after 2011 were searched in the National Guideline Clearinghouse and OVID MEDLINE. They were searched using disease names on the NGC, and using Mesh terms related to the diseases and guideline search filters on MEDLINE . Search results are shown in . Two committee members selected seven guidelines for the five diseases from the search results.
How Long Will I Take It For
If you’re taking nitrofurantoin to:
- treat a urinary tract infection, then you usually need to take it for 3 to 7 days
- stop urinary tract infections coming back, you may need to take it for several months
- prevent an infection before having surgery, you’ll usually need take it on the day of the operation and for the next 3 days
Don’t Miss: Antibiotics For Colitis Flare Up
Other Ways To Prevent Recurring Utis
If you have more than 3 UTIs in 1 year, or 2 UTIs in 6 months, there are other things that may help prevent UTIs.
There is some evidence that women under 65 years old who keep getting UTIs may find it helpful to take:
- a supplement called D-mannose this is not recommended for pregnant women
- cranberry products, such as juice or tablets
Speak to your doctor before taking any of these during pregnancy.
Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar.
Page last reviewed: 18 November 2020 Next review due: 18 November 2023
Antibiotics For Urinary Tract Infections In Older People
Antibiotics are medicines that can kill bacteria. Health care providers often use antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections .
The main symptom of a UTI is a burning feeling when you urinate.
However, many older people get UTI treatment even though they do not have these symptoms. This can do more harm than good. Heres why:
Antibiotics usually dont help when there are no UTI symptoms.
Older people often have some bacteria in their urine. This does not mean they have a UTI. But health care providers may find the bacteria in a routine test and give antibiotics anyway.
The antibiotic does not help these patients.
- It does not prevent UTIs.
- It does not help bladder control.
- It does not help memory problems or balance.
Most older people should not be tested or treated for a UTI unless they have UTI symptoms. And if you do have a UTI and get treated, you usually dont need another test to find out if you are cured. You should also not be tested just in case there is a UTI.
You should only get tested or treated if UTI symptoms come back.
Antibiotics have side effects.
Antibiotics can have side effects, such as fever, rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, tendon ruptures, and nerve damage.
Antibiotics can cause future problems.
Antibiotics can kill friendly germs in the body. This can lead to vaginal yeast infections. It can also lead to other infections, severe diarrhea, hospitalization, and even death.
When should older people take antibiotics for a UTI?
Are There Natural At
Yes. While taking antibiotics is still considered the gold standard of UTI treatments, there are some things you can do at home that help relieve symptoms, as well. These include:
- Drink plenty of water. Consuming at least six to eight 8-ounce glasses of water daily can help flush away UTI-causing bacteria, setting you up for a quicker recovery. Plus, the more you drink, the more youll have to urinate.
- Urinate often. Each time you empty your bladder, youre helping to flush bacteria out of your system.
- Try heat. Applying a heating pad to your pubic area for 15 minutes at a time can help soothe the pressure and pain caused by UTI-related inflammation and irritation.
- Tweak your wardrobe. Wearing loose cotton clothing and underwear can help you recover from a UTI.
- Go fragrance-free. Make sure your personal hygiene products are fragrance-free to sidestep further irritation, notes the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
- Cut out certain irritants. Caffeine, alcohol, spicy food, raw onions, citrus fruits, carbonated drinks, artificial sweeteners, and nicotine can further irritate your bladder, making it more difficult for your body to heal, per the Cleveland Clinic.
About Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are common infections that can affect the bladder, the kidneys and the tubes connected to them.
Anyone can get them, but they’re particularly common in women. Some women experience them regularly .
UTIs can be painful and uncomfortable, but usually pass within a few days and can be easily treated with antibiotics.
This page is about UTIs in adults. There is a separate article about UTIs in children.
This page covers:
You May Like: Best Antibiotic For Resistant Uti
Complicated Pyelonephritis Related To Urinary Tract Obstruction
1) Background and epidemiology
Urinary tract obstruction is important in the pathophysiology of infectious pyelonephritis. When normal urine excretion is obstructed, bacteria are introduced into the urinary tract. In the presence of foreign substances such as urinary stones, a biofilm forms on the surface of the urinary tract and bacteriuria continues. In addition, the extent of kidney damage is proportional to the period of urinary tract obstruction, and the recovery function of the kidney gradually deteriorates. The urine-concentrating ability can be completely recovered if the urinary tract obstruction lasts no more than a week or so. However, if the condition continues for 4 weeks, the ability may be permanently lost . For UTIs resulting from urinary tract obstruction, prompt management of the urinary tract obstruction is needed in addition to antibiotic treatment for the infection itself, and an individualized approach should be made according to the causative disease .
3) Guideline by key question
What are appropriate empirical antibiotics for initial administration in adult patients with complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction?
Medications For Treating Symptoms
Although antibiotics can cure most UTIs, severe symptoms can persist for several days until the drug eliminates the bacteria. Other medications may be used for relieving symptoms until the antibiotics take action.
Phenazopyridine relieves pain and burning caused by the infection. People should not take this medicine for more than 2 days without discussing it with their doctor.
Side effects include headache and upset stomach. The drug turns urine a red or orange color, which can stain fabric and be difficult to remove. Rarely, it can cause serious side effects, including shortness of breath, a bluish skin, a sudden reduction in urine output, and confusion. In such cases, people should immediately call the doctor.
Methenamine or flavoxate reduce bladder spasms, which may occur with some UTIs. However, these drugs can have severe side effects, which the person should discuss with the doctor.
Don’t Miss: Low Dose Antibiotics For Uti
Specific Risk Factors In Women
Structure of the Female Urinary Tract
In general, the higher risk for UTIs in women is mostly due to the shortness of the female urethra, which is about 1.5 inches compared to 8 inches in men. Bacteria from the vagina or fecal matter at the anal opening can be easily transferred to the opening of the urethra.
The female and male urinary tracts are similar except for the length of the urethra.
Frequent or recent sexual activity is the most important risk factor for UTIs in young women. Nearly 80% of all UTIs in premenopausal women occur within 24 hours of intercourse. UTIs are very rare in celibate women. However, UTIs are not sexually transmitted infections.
In general, it is the physical act of intercourse itself that produces conditions that increase susceptibility to the UTI bacteria, with some factors increasing the risk. For example, women having sex for the first time or who have intense or frequent sex are at risk for a condition called “honeymoon cystitis.”
Certain types of contraceptives can also increase the risk of UTIs. In particular, women who use diaphragms tend to develop UTIs. The spring-rim of the diaphragm can bruise the area near the bladder, making it susceptible to bacteria. Spermicidal foam or gel used with diaphragms, and spermicidal-coated condoms, also increase susceptibility to UTIs. Most spermicides contain nonoxynol-9, a chemical that is associated with increased UTI risk.
Alternative Therapeutic Options To Antibiotics For The Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections
- 1VBMI, INSERM U1047, Université de Montpellier, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, CHU Nîmes, Nîmes, France
- 2VBMI, INSERM U1047, Université de Montpellier, Service de Microbiologie et Hygiène Hospitalière, CHU Nîmes, Nîmes, France
- 3Service des Maladies Infectieuses, AP-HP Raymond-Poincaré, Garches, France
- 4PRES Centre Val de Loire, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Tours, France
- 5Service des Maladies Infectieuses, CHU Tours, Tours, France
- 6Service dUrologie, CHU Tours, Tours, France
Don’t Miss: What All Antibiotics Cure Chlamydia
Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infections
During the first stage, the urinary tract infection might not show any symptoms. It is only when the bacteria have invaded the urinary tract that symptoms appear. There are two types of urinary tract infections, and the symptoms are different.
An upper urinary tract infection comes with:
- Lack of appetite
- Drinking more water than usual
A lower urinary tract infection will present symptoms such as:
- The dog is in pain when urinating
- The urine might contain traces of blood
- The dog urinates significantly more than usual
- The dog tries to urinate, but cannot
Forming A Treatment Guideline Committee
The development committee consisted of a chairman and five committee members recommended by the Korean Society for Chemotherapy and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, one committee member recommended by the Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation, two committee members recommended by the Korean Urological Association, and two committee members recommended by the Korean Society of Nephrology.
Don’t Miss: Can A Minute Clinic Prescribe Antibiotics
Treatment For Uncomplicated Utis
UTIs can often be successfully treated with antibiotics prescribed over the phone. In such cases, a health professional provides the people with 3 to 5-day antibiotic regimens without requiring an office urine test. This course is recommended only for women who have typical symptoms of cystitis, who are at low risk for recurrent infection, and who do not have symptoms suggesting other problems. It is always best to have a urine culture done before starting antibiotics when possible.
Oral antibiotic treatment cures nearly all uncomplicated UTIs, although the rate of recurrence remains high. To prescribe the best treatment, the doctor should be made aware of any drug allergies of the person.
The following antibiotics are commonly used for uncomplicated UTIs:
After an appropriate course of antibiotic treatment, most people are free of infection. If the symptoms do not clear up within the first few days of therapy, doctors may suggest an alternate course of antibiotics. This may depend on the result of the urine culture. A urine culture may be ordered in order to identify the specific organism causing the condition if not done prior to starting antibiotics.
It should be noted that resistance to many of the commonly used antibiotics is growing and this is why it is now recommended to culture the urine before starting antibiotics. This helps reduce the overuse of these medications.
Treatment for Relapsing Infection
What Causes A Uti
Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria enters through the urethra. The bacteria may take hold in theurethra or go into the bladder. If left unchecked, this bacteria could multiply and grow into a full-blowninfection. Women are more likely to develop urinary tract infections than men because they have shorterurethras.
Small Compounds Targeting Adhesion
As previously noted, one of the critical mechanisms for the pathogenesis of the uropathogenic bacteria is its adhesion to uroepithelium , due to fimbriae , playing a role in both cystitis and pyelonephritis . The very conserved structure of the adhesive organelles makes them good candidates to develop antibacterial agents . The small molecules targeting adhesion can be classified into two categories: those inhibiting the capacity of adhesion of the fimbriae, and those targeting fimbriae assembly.
The main action of these molecules is to prevent the formation of UPEC pili by decreasing the levels of Type 1 and P piliation . Pilicides are small molecules which have a ring-fused 2-pyridone backbone. Some pilicides act directly on pili assembly chaperones, through adhering to their hydrophobic substrate binding sites . Others interfere with the transcription of pili genes and some cases genes involved in flagella biogenesis such as the pilicide ec240, the most potent inhibitor of Type 1 piliation and of type 1 pilus-dependent biofilm formation to date .
To develop this compound into a therapeutic, further studies are needed to assess its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and to determine the concentration at which it accumulates in the bladder or other potential sites of infection.
Symptoms Of Utis In Infants And Toddlers
UTIs in infants and preschool children tend to be more serious because they are more likely to involve the kidneys. Older children are more likely to have lower UTIs and standard symptoms. Infants and young children should always be checked for UTIs if the following symptoms are present:
- A persistent high fever of otherwise unknown cause, particularly if it is accompanied by signs of feeding problems, listlessness, and fatigue.
- Painful, frequent, and foul-smelling urine.
- Cloudy urine.
- A recurrence of bedwetting or poor urine control during the day in a child who previously had bladder control.
- Abdominal and low back pain.
- Vomiting and abdominal pain .
Recommended Reading: Can Bronchitis Be Treated With Antibiotics
Can Uti Symptoms Linger After I Take Antibiotics
Since UTI symptoms usually improve just a few days after starting antibiotics, youll want to talk to your healthcare provider if you notice that UTI symptoms are still hanging around after finishing your antibiotics.
Theres no need to panic, but you and your healthcare provider will want to make sure the antibiotics actually worked against your UTI. To do this, they may take another sample of your urine to see if the bacteria are still there or not. If the infection is cured, youll want to be sure there isnt a different issue thats causing similar symptoms.
An Ounce Of Prevention
Unfortunately, most UTIs are not completely preventable, and are caused by differences in the structure or function of the urinary tract and immune system. But there are . For example, stay hydrated to increase urine production and flush out unwanted bacterial intruders. Good hygiene is also important, but scrubbing away at delicate genital tissues can damage them and create portals for bacteria. Clean your genital area gently with mild soap and water. Postmenopausal women may benefit from . Finally, eating cranberries and urinating after having sex havent been proven to have major benefits, but arent likely to hurt, either.
Follow me on Twitter
Recommended Reading: Strep Throat Antibiotics How Long
Which Antibiotic Should Be Used To Treat A Uti
There are multiple types of antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections . Different treatments may be recommended in different areas of the country based on regional patterns of antibiotic resistance.
Most patients with an uncomplicated UTI will begin treatment without any special diagnostic test, although a urinalysis may be performed by taking a urine sample. In a urinalysis, the chemical components of the urine are determined, and the doctor may look at urine color, clarity, and a view a sample under the microscope. A urine culture may be order, too, but is not always needed to start treatment. A urine culture can define the specific bacteria causing the UTI in more complicated cases or in the case of treatment failure.
Symptoms like burning and stinging while urinating will usually clear up in within one day after starting treatment. Be sure to finish your entire course of medication. If symptoms are still present after 2 to 3 days, contact your healthcare provider.
More extensive diagnostic procedures or imaging tests like an X-ray may be required if you continue to have frequent UTIs.