How Is A Kidney Infection Diagnosed
Kidney infection diagnosis is based on physical symptoms and urine testing. Most typically, a kidney infection diagnosis will be made by a general practitioner, urgent care physician, or emergency room physician.
Kidney infection is a type of urinary tract infection, so symptoms will typically include symptoms of a bladder infection such as pain over the pubic area, frequent urination, and cloudy urine. The healthcare professional will look for specific symptoms of a kidney infection in addition to the UTI symptoms:
- Pain in the side or lower back pain
- Costovertebral angle tenderness, which is pain caused by tapping the back above the kidney
Fever, flank pain, and nausea are the strongest indicators of kidney infection.
The diagnosis is confirmed with urinalysis and a urine culture. The urine test will confirm the diagnosis by identifying white blood cells and other substances indicating infection. The urine culture is used to both identify the type of bacteria responsible for the infection and determine its resistance to antibiotics. Both are critical in determining the most effective antibiotic therapy.
Blood tests are not usually ordered for patients with an uncomplicated kidney infection, but blood will be tested for hospitalized patients.
What Is The Best Antibiotic For Urinary Tract Infection
The urinary tract is comprised of the ureters , kidneys, bladder, and urethra . Urinary tract infections wake forest nc are most commonly located in the urethra and bladder and while typically caused by bacteria, UTIs can also be viral or fungal. For patients suffering from a bacterial UTI, they may be curious about what antibiotics are the best for treating their infection.
Impaired Kidney Function May Not Justify Avoidance Of Nitrofurantoin
Urinary anti-infective agents
Bobjgalindo / Wikimedia Commons
Nitrofurantoin is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections but is not recommended in patients with an estimated kidney glomerular filtration rate below 60ml/min/1.73m2. This advice is controversial, however, and new research suggests it may be unfounded.
Investigators led by Amit Garg from Western University, Ontario, performed a population-based study of nearly 200,000 women who had been prescribed one of four antibiotics for a UTI. The analysis in CMAJ
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Which Antibiotic Will Work Best
Your doctor will take a urine sample to confirm that you have a UTI. Then the lab will grow the germs in a dish for a couple of days to find out which type of bacteria you have. This is called a culture. Itâll tell your doctor what type of germs caused your infection. Theyâll likely prescribe one of the following antibiotics to treat it before the culture comes back:
Which medication and dose you get depends on whether your infection is complicated or uncomplicated.
âUncomplicatedâ means your urinary tract is normal. âComplicatedâ means you have a disease or problem with your urinary tract. You could have a narrowing of your ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder, a narrowing in the urethra which transports urine from the bladder out of the body, or, you might have a blockage like a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate . It’s also possible you have a urinary fistula or a bladder diverticulum.
To treat a complicated infection, your doctor might prescribe a higher dose of antibiotics. If your UTI is severe or the infection is in your kidneys, you might need to be treated in a hospital or doctor’s office with high-dose antibiotics you get through an IV.
Your doctor will also consider these factors when choosing an antibiotic:
- Are you over age 65?
- Are you allergic to any antibiotics?
- Have you had any side effects from antibiotics in the past?
Treatments For Utis And Kidney Infections
After making a diagnosis and determining that you have a urinary tract infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria causing your infection.
You should inform your doctor if you have any drug allergies before taking the medication. Call your doctor if you develop any side effects like rashes while taking your antibiotic.
For kidney infections, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria causing the infections.
Your doctor may also give you pain relievers to manage the painful symptoms that can accompany a kidney infection. Depending on the severity of your infection and other factors in your personal medical history, you may need to be admitted to the hospital for further monitoring.
Its also important that you drink a lot of fluids. This will help prevent dehydration and flush the bacteria out of your kidneys.
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Common Symptoms Of A Kidney Infection
Your kidneys are vital to your overall health. Your kidneys are responsible for filtering your blood every minute and removing waste from your body. They also remove excess fluids which exit the body as urine and help to maintain a healthy balance of water, salt, and minerals in your body.
Neglecting the early warning signs of a kidney infection or other kidney problem can have severe consequences. Detecting the signs and symptoms of a kidney infection is simple yet crucial. Symptoms may vary, depending on your age, and commonly include:
abdomen, back, groin, or side pain
frequent painful urination
dark, cloudy, or bad-smelling urine
Kidney infections can sometimes lead to high blood pressure, kidney failure, or chronic kidney disease. You are at a greater risk of developing a kidney infection if you have a history of diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of kidney failure. However, complications are rare if the condition is appropriately treated with antibiotics.
Older adults who get a kidney infection may have none of the typical symptoms but exhibit problems with thinking, such as confusion, hallucinations, or jumbled speech.
Antibiotics And The Treatment Process
Although powerful, the antibiotics listed above do not always work. Certain strains of bacteria can build resistance to antibiotics. As a result, veterinarians use another method to make sure the infection is actually clearing the pets body.
During treatment, the urine must be recultured to be sure the prescribed antibiotic is still effective against the targeted bacteria. After treatment ends, the urine must be recultured at least three times at six- to eight-week intervals before the dog will receive a clean billof health.
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Treatments For Urinary And Kidney Infections
Kidney infections always require antibiotics. Donât rely on home remedies alone to take care of kidney infections.
Usually, doctors will prescribe empiric antibiotics to cover all the potential bacteria that could have caused the infection until they can target the specific bacteria based on test results. Antibiotics are usually prescribed for at least a full week.
Normally, you wonât require a stay at a hospital for a kidney infection as long as you can move around and consistently keep down oral antibiotics.
However, if you exhibit severe symptoms or cannot keep down the medication due to nausea and vomiting, you may be hospitalized so that your doctor may administer antibiotics and fluids intravenously.
If the kidney infection progresses enough to create an abscess in the kidney, you may require more serious treatment. Abscesses cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In order to drain them, doctors will perform a nephrostomy, which involves placing a tube through your back, into the kidney.
Get Strep Throat Treatment Online
If you or your child are experiencing throat pain, painful swallowing, and other common strep throat symptoms, we have good news: you dont need to visit your doctors office for strep throat antibiotics.
Instead, you can schedule an online appointment with one of the trusted doctors at PlushCare. If your doctor thinks strep throat antibiotics are right for you, they can send an electronic prescription to your local pharmacy.
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What Is The Prognosis For A Person With A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections typically respond very well to treatment. A UTI can be uncomfortable before you start treatment, but once your healthcare provider identifies the type of bacteria and prescribes the right antibiotic medication, your symptoms should improve quickly. Its important to keep taking your medication for the entire amount of time your healthcare provider prescribed. If you have frequent UTIs or if your symptoms arent improving, your provider may test to see if its an antibiotic-resistant infection. These are more complicated infections to treat and may require intravenous antibiotics or alternative treatments.
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What Is The Treatment For A Kidney Infection
- Antibiotics will usually clear the infection. An antibiotic is usually prescribed straightaway if a kidney infection is suspected, even before the result of the urine test is known. Some germs are resistant to some antibiotics. Therefore, sometimes a change of antibiotic may be needed if the urine test shows a germ which is resistant to the initial antibiotic. The course of antibiotics is for 7-14 days, depending on which one is used. Commonly used antibiotics for kidney infections include ciprofloxacin, cefalexin, co-amoxiclav or trimethoprim.
- Painkillers such as paracetamol can ease pain and reduce a high temperature . Stronger painkillers may be needed if the pain is more severe. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen are not usually recommended for a person with a kidney infection. This is because they may possibly cause problems with the working of the kidney during a kidney infection.
- Plenty of fluid should be taken to prevent lack of fluid in the body .
In many cases, the infection is not too severe, treatment can be taken at home and the infection will clear with a course of antibiotic tablets. If treatment is to be home-based, a doctor should be called if the symptoms are not improving after 24 hours, or the person is feeling more unwell.
However, some people need to be admitted to hospital – for example if:
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Accurate Diagnosing Of A Uti
Can you self-diagnose a UTI? First of all, read why OTC UTI test strips could be inaccurate in your case.
Moreover, in a recent study, less than 50% of women who reported UTI symptoms to their physician truly had a urinary tract infection.
The most accurate predictors of a true UTI are the combination of urgency to urinate, burning during urination, and pyuria .
The same study suggests that more physicians should perform wet mount microscopy test to look for white cells in the urine before prescribing antibiotics for UTI.
Have you noticed blood in your urine, cloudy urine or a funny smell to your urine? These are some symptoms that are indicative of a UTI, especially if they have been happening only for a short time. These symptoms may be more predictive than lower abdomen pain and burning with urination, which is also common with bladder inflammation that is not due to a UTI.
Important: if you have recurring blood in your urine and no other signs of a UTI, let your doctor know right away as this could be a sign of a bladder tumor that should be treated right away.
Therefore, whenever you are offered antibiotics for UTI, always ask for a urine culture test or wet mount microscopy test.
Always pay attention to your UTI symptoms, even after you finish your antibiotic treatment. If you have just finished a course of antibiotics but your symptoms still linger on, read this interview with a urologist explaining why antibiotics may not work for your UTI.
First Line Antibiotics For A Uti
Notably absent from the list of antibiotics prescribed for the treatment of UTIs is Amoxicillin. While very popular and useful in treating numerous other bacterial infections, urinary tract infections are not amongst the infections Amoxicillin is used for.
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Bathrooms In The 19th Century
She could not know that her likelihood of getting a UTI is exacerbated by the role women have in her society. In 1850, womens public bathrooms did not exist, resulting in what is sometimes referred to as a urinary leash. Not unlike the women in ancient Athens, respectable women before the Edwardian era usually did not frequent public places. If she needed to leave the home, she either held it, drank little, or made sure she did not travel far, probably all three. Drinking water regularly significantly decreases the chance of a UTI from recurring.
If she is literate and well-read, she might have a recourse to The Females Medical Guide and Married Womans Advisor, published in 1849, which mentions a common disease called The Whites. The symptoms include smarting when making water, lower back pain, loss of appetite, pale complexion, and low spirits, but only in connection with a white vaginal discharge. It is not unlikely that she has the discharge, too, although it may be unrelated to the UTI. Leukorrhea is quite common among women and is often benign.
First Are Antibiotics Necessary
Taking antibiotics should not be treated lightly, especially given the increased risk of developing multi-drug resistant bacteria like ESBL E.coli, for which we are running out of treatments.
- While burning when you pee and the urge to urinate, are common UTI symptoms, they are not always indicative of a urinary tract infection.
- Antibiotics alone are not as effective against mature bacterial biofilms.
- An incomplete course or prophylactic antibiotics can actually promote the growth of bacterial biofilms.
- Antioxidants, available in N-acetylcysteine supplements can increase the effectiveness of antibiotics and help you fight mature bacterial biofilms.
- Natural supplements like D-Mannose can be effective at the first sign of a UTI and dont come with the extensive side effect profile of many antibiotics
Therefore, you and your physician should ensure that necessary testing is done before prescribing antibiotics. This includes analyzing accurate local antibiotic resistance data to make sure you get the best empirical antibiotics until more data is available.
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How Can I Make Sure My Kidney Infection Is Completely Gone
If you recently had a kidney infection, the health care professional will often repeat urine cultures after your treatment ends to make sure your infection has completely gone away and has not come back. If a repeat test shows infection, you may take another round of antibiotics. If your infection comes back again, he or she may prescribe antibiotics for a longer time period.
If your health care professional prescribes antibiotics, take all of the antibiotics as prescribed and follow the advice of the health care professional. Even if you start to feel better, you should finish all of your medicine.
When Should You Call Your Doctor
if painful urination or other symptoms of a urinary tract infection occur with:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Fever and chills.
- Pain in the flank, which is felt just below the rib cage and above the waist on one or both sides of the back, or lower belly pain.
if you are pregnant and have symptoms of a UTI .
- Have had UTI symptoms previously and have those symptoms again.
- Have minor symptoms of a UTI that do not clear up in 1 to 2 days, such as pain or burning when you urinate, foul-smelling urine, or the urge to urinate frequently while passing only small amounts of urine.
- Notice blood or pus in your urine.
- Have symptoms of a UTI and you have diabetes.
- Have been taking antibiotics for a UTI but your symptoms do not improve after 48 hours or they come back after improving temporarily.
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Antibiotics For Uti Caused By Esbl E Coli
Unfortunately, more and more patients are diagnosed with a UTI caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase -producing E. coli. These are E. coli that have evolved to find ways to evade the antibiotics that normally would kill them. In this case, your UTI will most likely be resistant to many of first-line antibiotics listed above and you have a higher risk of developing a kidney infection. At risk group includes:
- Patients with recurrent UTIs
- Patients with recent exposure to antibiotics.
Antibiotics classified as carbapenems are often the drug of choice when treating UTIs caused by ESBL-producing bacteria. Antimicrobials, such as nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, amikacin, and cefepime, may also be an option.
There are also new beta-lactam/ beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations that came to the market in the United States in the past few years, that are effective against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa .
- Ceftazidime-avibactam , active against a variety of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but not Gram-positive organisms.
- Ceftolozane-tazobactam , active against a number of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
- Meropenem-vaborbactam , for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
About Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are common infections that can affect the bladder, the kidneys and the tubes connected to them.
Anyone can get them, but theyre particularly common in women. Some women experience them regularly .
UTIs can be painful and uncomfortable, but usually pass within a few days and can be easily treated with antibiotics.
This page is about UTIs in adults. There is a separate article about UTIs in children.
This page covers:
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What Type Of Bacteria Usually Cause Urinary Tract Infections
The most common bacterial cause of UTIs are E coli. These bacteria usually live harmlessly in the gut of healthy people but can cause problems if they get into the bladder or other parts of the urinary tract. Uncomplicated infection of the bladder, also called cystitis, is common and can be very painful.
Some strains of E. coli bacteria have begun to produce enzymes called extended-spectrum beta-lactamases . These can make the bacteria resistant to certain antibiotics, and so the bacteria continue to multiply and spread. This causes more severe infection which becomes much more difficult to treat. Another type of bacteria which often causes antibiotic resistant UTIs is ESBL klebsiella pneumoniae. You can read more about extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria here.
E. coli belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family of Gram-negative bacteria. This family of bacteria also include klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter cloacae. The Enterobacteriaceae family can all cause UTIs and are often treated with the beta-lactam antibiotic, carbapenem, for which there are specific ESBL enzymes. The carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae that have developed, have become a real risk to health as the main antibiotic becomes useless and their presence increases in hospitals and care settings.