Identification And Screening Of Articles
After the removal of duplicates, we identified a total of 3,475 articles published from 1964 to January 2021, including 3 additional references that were identified from reading these papers. Pre-selection by title and abstract reduced to 227 articles for full-text analysis, and 90 fulfilled the preestablished criteria and were included in the final analysis . The remaining 140 articles did not fit our inclusion criteria as they did not include gull samples, did not present AMR information/data, data from gulls were previously published, the study included experimental infection, the study was performed on captive gulls or in rehabilitation centers, the study sampling was conducted postmortem, or the full text of the article was not available.
Figure 1. Article search flow diagram.
Summary Of Amr Phenotypic Data For Main Pathogens
Figure 1. Summary data on prevalence of phenotypic resistance among in common bacterial poultry pathogens . AMC, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid AMP, ampicillin C, chloramphenicol CEF, ceftiofur CIP, ciprofloxacin CN, gentamicin DOX, doxycycline ENR, enrofloxacin, ERY, erythromycin FFN, florfenicol NEO, neomycin PEN, penicillin SXT, co-trimoxazole TE, tetracycline.
Omicron: Resistant To Most Monoclonal Antibodies But Neutralized By A Booster Dose
The study was on December 15, 2021 and in Nature on Dec 23, 2021
Initial epidemiological studies demonstrate that the Omicron variant is more transmissible than the Delta variant. The Omicron variants biological characteristics are still relatively unknown. It has more than 32 mutations in the spike protein compared with the first SARS-CoV-2 and was designated as a variant of concern by WHO on November 26, 2021.
In South Africa, the Omicron variant replaced the other viruses within a few weeks and led to a sharp increase in the number of cases diagnosed. Analyses in various countries indicate that the doubling time for cases is approximately 2 to 4 days. Omicron has been detected in dozens of countries, including France and became dominant by the end of 2021.
In a new study supported by the European Unions Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority , scientists from the Institut Pasteur and the Vaccine Research Institute, in collaboration with KU Leuven , Orléans Regional Hospital, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou and Inserm, studied the sensitivity of Omicron to antibodies compared with the currently dominant Delta variant. The aim of the study was to characterize the efficacy of therapeutic antibodies, as well as antibodies developed by individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 or vaccinated, in neutralizing this new variant.
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Anthropogenic Environmental Drivers Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Wildlife
Does AMR in wildlife reflect exposure to human or livestock wastes?
AMR patterns in E. coli from birds and mammals varied with site, season and host.
Colistin resistance and ESBL/AmpC activity high in wildlife exposed to human waste.
Our data question the use of wildlife as sentinels of anthropogenic environmental AMR.
This Is The Best Answer
A colony of bacteria exposed to the antibiotic develops antibiotic resistance. If an inadequate dose of antibiotics is used for a shorter period of time, the chance of resistance may be increased because the antibiotic does not kill all bacteria.In this case, the bacteria from waterfowl had never received antibiotics. Since the bacteria are never exposed to the antibiotics so it should be sensitive to the antibiotics.
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Geographic Locations And Gull And Bacteria Species Studied
Our scoping review identified 90 articles published between 1981 and 2020, although only 22% of these studies were published before 2010. The number of studies published on gulls increased from 1 in 1981 to 10 per year in 2020 and peaked in 2017 with 12 articles . Studies were conducted in gulls from all five continents, but the majority of publications were made in Europe followed by North America . Studies were conducted in a total of 31 countries, with high-income countries such as the United States , Portugal and Spain conducting the highest number of studies . In contrast, in middle- and low-income countries, few publications were conducted .
Figure 2. Geographical locations of the AMR studies found in gulls. Number of publications per continents. Number of publications per continent over the 19802020 period. Number of publications of AMR in gulls per country in gradient.
From 100 species of gulls known , ARB or ARGs were recovered from 23 species. Most gulls studied were migratory species. The number of studies per gull species was highly heterogeneous . The majority of studies focused on the herring gull , followed by the laughing gull and the yellow-legged gull . These three species are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere.
Figure 3. Number of publications per gull and bacteria species. Number of publications per gull species. Number of publications per gull species over the 19802020 period. Number of publications per bacteria species.
Antibiotic Susceptibility In Bacteria From Gulls
Table 1. AMR bacteria detected in gulls by continent and gull species between 1981 and 2020.
Figure 4. Antibiotic resistance and molecular method used. Number of publications by family of antibiotic. Number of publications by typing method.
Among the four antimicrobial-resistant pathogens considered as a critical priority by the WHO , all were tested at least once in the reviewed studies. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales from gulls were the most reported , followed by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales . Among high-priority pathogens, Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. both resistant to fluoroquinolones were the most identified. No medium-priority pathogen has been recovered from gulls.
Table 2. ARB of the Global Priority Pathogens list of the World Health Organization isolated from gulls reported between 1981 and 2020.
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A Possibility Human Waste Was Involved
The researchers analyzed 40 soil samples from eight different locations in Svalbard. The DNA sequencing that they conducted revealed the presence of 131 antibiotic-resistant genes.
One of these genes, the presence of which in the Arctic soil took the researchers by surprise, is blaNDM-1, which scientists first discovered in New Delhi, India in 2007.
In bacteria, blaNDM-1 confers resistance to carbapenem antibiotics, a potent set of drugs that doctors only use to treat infectious diseases that do not respond to other antibiotics.
The question that arose from this discovery was: how did these superbugs get to this remote Arctic region? Prof. Roberts and colleagues hypothesize that there are a few different ways in which antibiotic-resistant strains could have spread this far.
They likely originated from pathogens that were exposed multiple times to different types of antibiotics thats how we get these acutely antibiotic-resistant strains, where they persist even despite the use of last-resort treatments, explains Prof. Roberts.
Some of the sites where we found the New Delhi strain of gene arent terribly far from the main research base, so theres a possibility human waste was involved, she notes.
Study Reveals Unsettling Multidrug Antibiotic Resistance In Remote Arctic Soil Microbes
LAWRENCE A University of Kansas geologists work in the remote High Arctic of Norway has exposed the startling global spread of antibiotic-resistant microbes including multidrug-resistant superbugs that could have dire implications for human health worldwide.
Jennifer Roberts, professor and chair of geology at KU, began by investigating the microbial geochemistry of thawing permafrost and its release of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas that speeds global climate change.
But follow-up analysis of the soil samples Roberts collected in the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard, Norway, also showed that antibiotic-resistant genes have transferred into soil-microbe populations in one of Earths most remote locations. The findings by Roberts and an international team of colleagues from the United Kingdom and China were just published in the peer-reviewed journal Environment International.
The study offered a good opportunity to test soil samples for antibiotic genes with the hypothesis that Svalbard was such a remote and isolated place, we wouldnt find any evidence of such genes, Roberts said. In contrast, we found quite a few including superbug antibiotic-resistant genes like the New Delhi gene, which first emerged in India not very long ago. This was a surprise the genes we found clearly had a short transfer time between being discovered in India and our group detecting them in the Arctic only a few years later.
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Todays Deadly New Pathogens Arent Just A Scientific Challenge Theyre A Political One
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Shafts of sunlight filter into the darkened interiors of long-abandoned homes on Waco Street, in the heart of Houstons Fifth Ward, an impoverished neighborhood of mostly black and Latino residents two miles from downtown. Ash-coated vines snake through front yards. And in nearby empty lots, islands of trashold clothes, disemboweled couches, cardboard boxesfloat in fields of weeds.
When it rainsabout 50 inches fall on Houston every yearwater collects in the ditches and in the nooks and crannies of garbage-strewn lots and empty homes, providing ample breeding sites for mosquitoes. Armies of insects hatch every few days, the females fanning out into the subtropical night in search of blood to nourish their incubating eggs. People slumbering in dilapidated houses with broken window screens make for easy pickings.
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Why Are So Few Bacteria Isolated From Waterfowl Resistant To Antibiotics
There are so few waterfowl isolates show resistant to antibiotics. This is because the bacteria isolates from waterfowl never come in contact with antibiotics and show sensitivity toward the antibiotics.
Antibiotics are some medicines that help in preventing infections that can be developed by bacteria. They act by destroying or killing the bacteria. Also, they stop them from reproducing and making more progeny. Bacteria are mainly part of a prokaryotic system.
Resistance to an antibiotic can be developed due to the colony of the bacteria that can be exposed to any antibiotic. Having an insufficient dosage of an antibiotic in a short period can increase the resistance possibility as not the antibiotic destroys all the bacteria. In this particular case, the bacteria isolated from waterfowl have never experienced any antibiotics. Thus, the bacteria are not exposed to antibiotics and should be sensitive to the antibiotics.
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Molecular Characterization Of Args In Gulls
ARGs were reported in 70% of studies conducted in gulls . Mobile genetic elements were identified in 43% of studies, with 35 studies confirming that ARGs were inserted on an MGE. Sixteen percent of studies detected ARGs using PCR alone, or in combination with sequencing . Only 8% of studies characterized bacteria by whole-genome sequencing, and one study used a metagenomic approach .
Table 3. Beta-lactamases genes identified in isolates from gulls reported between 1981 and 2020.
Table 4. AMR genes identified in isolates from gulls reported between 1981 and 2020.
Origin Of Amr In Gulls
Only 19% of studies suggested a potential origin for the ARB or ARGs detected among gulls. Landfill , places close to gulls nesting, and/or resting areas with high human density , sewage effluents , and contaminated water were suspected. Suspicions were based on potential contamination sources around the sampling area. However, only one study carried out sampling to verify whether the gulls acquired the bacteria from a specific contamination source, comparing bacteria from gulls to bacteria isolated from sewage water near their nesting sites. The same AMR phenotypic profiles were obtained in both sample types, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis detected the same AMR profiles in bacterial clones from wastewater and gulls.
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Background And Recent Developments
As a general principle, the concentration of humans or animals in proximity enhances potential transmission of microorganisms among members of the group. It also creates greater potential for infecting surrounding life forms, even those of different species. The conditions created also may be a breeding ground for new, more infectious, or more resistant microorganisms.
As the human population increases, and mega cities grow, there is greater risk that infectious diseases will evolve, emerge, or spread readily among the populace. The increasing food needs of the growing human population likely will lead to greater populations of livestock. The concentration of animals may augment the risk of zoonoses, diseases transmissible from animals to humans. All segments of livestock production might potentially contribute to zoonotic disease, including transportation of livestock, manure handling practices, veterinary medicine, meat processing and animal rendering. Ideally, everyone involved in each of these components of the industry should be cognizant of the infectious disease risks to animals and humans alike.
The Role Of Gulls As Reservoirs Of Antibiotic Resistance In Aquatic Environments: A Scoping Review
- 1Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago, Chile
- 2Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Centro de Investigación para la Sustentabilidad, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago, Chile
- 3Millennium Initiative for Collaborative Research on Bacterial Resistance , Santiago, Chile
- 4Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
- 5Department of Animal Production and Preventive Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University , Botucatu, Brazil
- 6Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance Team , Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro , Vila Real, Portugal
- 7Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry , University NOVA of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
- 8Veterinary and Animal Research Centre, Associate Laboratory for Animal and Veterinary Science , University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro , Vila Real, Portugal
- 9Área Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, Spain
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After The Fire: The Residents Of 650 Parliament St
In late August a fire broke out in a downtown Toronto high-rise where 1,500 people lived. Nobody was killed in the blaze at 650 Parliament Street, but two weeks later residents still don’t exactly how long it will be until they can move back in. The National sent reporter Nick Purdon and producer/videographer Leonardo Palleja to find out what the fire has done to people’s lives.
“We tried to get hotels,” says Daniel, “but in order to get them you need a credit card or something, but we don’t have that.”
But once they pick up their possessions, the problem for many is where to go next. Many are low-income residents in a city with some of the highest rents and lowest vacancy rates in the country.
Jonathan Bakay from apartment 416 now sleeps on a cot in a downtown shelter.
“That apartment represented a lot to me because it was my first place that was just mine,” Bakay says. “I got it all myself. No one helped me it’s my place. That was a big achievement in my life, to get to that point where I was completely self reliant.”
A pair of Toronto law firms has begun the initial stages of a class-action lawsuit on behalf the building’s residents. They hope to seek damages against the owners of the high-rise and Toronto Hydro.
“That’s what I don’t really like,” she says. “And I will have to get a late slip and that’s what I don’t like getting, because it goes on your report card. I don’t like that because I miss lessons and stuff.”
– Nick Purdon
Antimicrobial Resistance In Bacterial Poultry Pathogens: A Review
- 1Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
- 2Avian Health Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
- 3Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
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Superbugs Are Both Native And Evolved
Then, the scientists faced another problem. They wanted to find out which of the antibiotic-resistant genes were native, i.e., occurring naturally in the region, and which ones may have traveled to the Arctic from other parts of the world.
Because the migration of these genes is of such great concern, the next question becomes, Are these antibiotic-resistant genes native or did they get transferred?’ says Prof. Roberts.
The researchers identified a benchmark for native antibiotic-resistant genes so that they could separate them from the ones that arrived at this region from elsewhere.
We did that by looking at nutritional supplies in soil, which are very, very low in these Arctic soils. We were then able to link the antibiotic-resistant genes to what appears to be a new source of phosphate being brought in from outside and the most likely source of phosphate is feces, either in human sewage or, more than likely, bird guano, the researcher explains.
The scientists believe that some of the antibiotic-resistant genes passed from one bacterium to another via a process called lateral gene transfer, in which the harmful bacteria that birds and other vectors carry passed from feces into the water.
Once they die, the bacteria release their genetic material into the environment, which means that other bacteria can then pick up the antibiotic-resistant genes.