What Are The Four Types Of Allergic Reactions
Two British immunologists, Coombs and Gell, have classified allergic reactions into four types, Type I, II, III and IV.
Type I, II and III allergic reactions are called immediate types of allergic reactions because they occur within twenty-four hours of exposure to the allergen. Type IV reactions typically occur after 24 hours of exposure and are called delayed allergic reactions.
Type I or anaphylactic reactions: Type I reactions are mediated by proteins called IgE antibodies produced by the immune system. These are produced in response to the allergens such as pollen, animal dander or dust mites, or even certain foods. This causes the release of histamine and other chemicals causing inflammation and swelling. Examples of type I allergic reactions include
- autoimmune neutropenia.
Type III or immunocomplex reactions: Type III reactions are also mediated by proteins i.e. IgM and IgG antibodies. These antibodies react with the allergen to form immunocomplexes . These complexes are responsible for the reaction. Type III allergic reactions can be seen in
- serum sickness and
- Arthus reaction.
Multiple Drug Allergy Syndrome
This time though, I noticed the mild rash after just 1 day. I stopped taking the drug, but the symptoms continued. Rashes popped up on my stomach and feet. I had a fever, mouth sores, back pain and swelling around the eyes.
Later, I discovered natural therapies to treat mastitis through my neuropathologist. Heat and cold compresses, lecithin, garlic, and I actually put cabbage leaves in my bra, which for some reason dries up the milk production. The problem is that there is no magic bullet and it takes longer. So instead of feeling sick for a day, nursing moms will feel sick for a week.
All my reactions and symptoms finally came to a sudden end in mid-July, 7 months after they started. But the fear lingered. I was afraid Id be allergic to other antibiotics and was terrified to try another.
Seeking answers, I began doing research. I found a name for my condition: Multiple Drug Allergy Syndrome.
I finally made an appointment at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., where I met with one of the few doctors who specialize in multiple drug allergies.
He was considerably less concerned than I was, and that gave me hope. He put together a plan so that the next time I needed antibiotics I had some reasonable options.
What Should I Do If I Have A Reaction To Penicillin
If you believe you are having a reaction to penicillin, or any medication you are taking, you should call the healthcare provider who prescribed it to you.
The provider will usually ask the following:
- What symptoms you are having
- When you started taking the medication
- When the symptoms started to appear
- If you have stopped taking the medication
- How severe the symptoms are and if you have done anything to stop them, such as taking an allergy medication
- What other medications you are taking, including over-the-counter products
Try to give the most complete answers to these questions that you can.
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Penicillin Skin Sensitivity Testing
Penicillin skin sensitivity testing can help to confirm the safety of the drug and qualm fears of a dangerous drug reaction. A positive skin test indicates the presence of IgE antibodies to penicillin and immediately excludes the use of it and related ß-lactam antibiotics. For non-penicillin ß-lactams, the immunogenic determinants that are produced by degradation are unknown, and diagnostic skin testing is of limited value.
How To Know If Youre Having An Allergic Reaction To Antibiotics
Youre under the weather with a bacterial infection. To get you back to feeling your best, your doctor prescribed an antibiotic. But now that youve started taking it, youre experiencing other symptoms. How can you tell if its an allergic reaction to antibiotics?
Am I having an allergic reaction to antibiotics? is a common question, but a true allergic reaction to an antibiotic is actually less common than you might think. In fact, drug allergies make up only an estimated 5 to 10% of medication side effects, according to the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology.
Its easy to mistake common antibiotic side effects with an allergy, so how can you tell the difference? Read on to get the facts about allergic reactions.
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How Is An Allergic Reaction To Penicillin Treated
If your healthcare provider believes that your symptoms are caused by penicillin, he or she will likely advise you to stop taking it immediately and to take an antihistamine to help treat the symptoms of the allergic reaction. The provider may prescribe a corticosteroid to reduce inflammation or itching. Treatment with epinephrine may be necessary for severe reactions.
If the condition for which you started taking penicillin has not cleared up, your provider will most likely prescribe a different antibiotic. For most people, having an allergic reaction to penicillin does not mean that they will have a bad reaction to other antibiotics.
If you are diagnosed with a penicillin allergy, you should tell all of your providers, including your dentist and any specialists you see. Bring it up before undergoing any type of treatment or procedure. Describe your reaction to penicillin so the people caring for you are fully aware of your risk factors.
Sulfa Vs Sulfite Allergy
A sulfa allergy sounds like a sulfite allergy, but theyâre very different. Sulfa drugs treat health conditions. Sulfites are preservatives used in many foods, drinks , and medications.
Sulfa drugs and sulfites are not related. Neither are their allergies. Thereâs no need to give up dried fruit, wine, or other items that have sulfites if youâre sensitive to sulfa drugs.
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Multiple Antibiotic Sensitivity Syndrome
Patients are sometimes thought to be allergic to multiple antibiotics because they were given multiple antibiotics during the course of a single viral illness and developed various virus-induced rashes. However, one study found that 21% of patients with a history of a probable IgE-mediated reaction to penicillin also had a history of a probable IgE-mediated reaction to another class of antibiotics . Another study prospectively looked at the incidence of suspected allergic reactions to antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and found the incidence to be 13% in patients who gave a history of allergy to other antibiotics, versus 1% in a control group . However, these reactions to multiple antibiotics may not be IgE mediated : one study found that the incidence of reactions to multiple antibiotics was no higher among patients with positive penicillin skin test results than among patients with negative penicillin skin test results or among patients with allergic rhinitis .
Allergic Reactions To Antibiotics
A severe allergic reaction is known as anaphylaxis, and usually occurs within an hour of taking an antibiotic. A severe allergic reaction is a medical emergency requiring immediate medical attention. You may need to call triple zero and perform first aid.
The symptoms of anaphylaxis are:
- difficult/noisy breathing
- pale and floppy
Sometimes you can get less dangerous symptoms before an anaphylaxis, such as:
The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy recommends that for a severe allergic reaction adrenaline is the initial treatment. If you are allergic to antibiotics you may be instructed by a doctor how to avoid triggers and if severe may instruct you how to use a self-administered adrenalin injection such as EpiPen®. The doctor will record the allergy and type of reaction in your notes and electronic health records and will give you an anaphylaxis action plan.
Most allergies are caused by penicillin or antibiotics closely related to penicillin, or by another type of antibiotic called sulfonamides.
Feeling nauseous and vomiting after taking antibiotics is usually a side-effect of the medicine, rather than an allergic reaction.
If you have any other concerns about antibiotics, including possible side effects, contact your doctor.
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How Is Penicillin Allergy Treated
If a patient tests positive for a penicillin allergy, the doctor will need to prescribe another antibiotic in place of penicillin. If penicillin is needed to treat an infection, a drug desensitization treatment will be used.
The desensitization protocol is a procedure we do to induce temporary immune tolerance to the penicillin or a penicillin derivative, says Dr. Zheng.
Desensitization involves starting medication at miniscule doses and increasing the rate of administration every 15 to 20 minutes. Progressively greater doses of the drug are then administered in a stepwise manner, until a full therapeutic dose has been delivered. This rate is then maintained until the full rate of medication has been administered. The process may take several hours, which allows the immune system to tolerate the drug.
This allows the patient to complete the course of therapy with a particular antibiotic, Dr. Zheng says.
While drug desensitization enables a patient to complete a course of treatment using penicillin, once the medication is discontinued, or if treatment is interrupted for about two days, the patients hypersensitivity to the medication returns. The patient may need to go through the same desensitization protocol again.
Listen To A Podcast About What To Do If You Have An Allergic Reaction
Sneezing and wheezing can be signs of seasonal allergies, but what if you get hives or swelling or you cant breathe? You might be having a serious allergic reaction. This may occur because of a medication, food, animals, latex or other allergens. And sometimes coming into contact with something you are allergic to can be life-threatening. Learn the signs to look out for, what to do if you have an allergic reaction and much more from Dr. Scott Burger, Interim Chief Medical Officer of UM Urgent Care.
Listen here or go to our website:
Are you having an allergic reaction to antibiotics or another medication?
Visit a University of Maryland Urgent Care location today.
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Severe Aches And Pains
In very rare cases, fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause disabling, long-lasting or permanent side effects affecting the joints, muscles and nervous system.
Stop taking fluoroquinolone treatment straight away and see your GP if you get a serious side effect including:
- tendon, muscle or joint pain usually in the knee, elbow or shoulder
- tingling, numbness or pins and needles
What Is An Antibiotic Medication Allergy
An antibiotic medication allergy is a harmful reaction to an antibiotic. The reaction can start soon after you take the medicine, or days or weeks after you stop. Healthcare providers cannot know ahead of time if you will have an allergic reaction. Your immune system may become sensitive to the antibiotic the first time you take it. You may have an allergic reaction the next time. The antibiotics most likely to cause an allergic reaction are penicillins and cephalosporins.
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How Are Adverse Drug Reactions Classified
Adverse drug reactions can be classified as either non-immunological or immunological.
- The majority of ADRs are non-immunologically mediated.
- The reactions are often predictable pharmacological side effects.
- Dose-related ADRs may be due to underlying renal or hepatic disease.
- The ADRs can also be unpredictable and idiosyncratic.
- They can occur on a single occasion or on every occasion the drug is prescribed.
What To Do If You Have Allergic Reactions To Antibiotics
Dicloxacillin led the author to develop small rashes, joint pain, and other unusual effects. Find out the signs of a drug allergy and how to deal with them.
What started out as a few pinprick-sized dots on my forearms on Christmas Day turned into a huge allergic reaction that would go on in various forms until the 4th of July. The culprit was the antibiotic dicloxacillin, a member of the penicillin family.
Though antibiotics can be lifesaving, I was taking this one mostly out of convenience. I am prone to mastitis, which occurs when a lactating womans milk duct clogs and becomes infected. The symptoms include fever and body aches. Lactating women as I was at the time are typically busy moms with at least one very young child. My youngest was 11 months old. My other two sons were 3 and 8. I had no time to deal with my own illnesses, so if there was a quick fix, I took it. I now know that was a big mistake.
This was not my first time taking dicloxacillin. I had developed mastitis 6 times over the previous 3 years, and dicloxacillin had quickly cured it with no ill effects. My seventh round of this antibiotic was the unlucky one. By the time the rash popped up, I had already finished taking the 10-day antibiotic series. I was having a delayed reaction.
Symptoms Of A Penicillin Allergy
A penicillin allergy can cause life-threatening allergic reactions, but fortunately, most kids with a penicillin allergy have more mild reactions, leading to simple skin rashes such as hives.
Children with more severe symptoms will experience hives as well as wheezing, difficulty breathing or swallowing, or swelling in their mouth or throat, as well as anaphylaxisa serious allergic reaction.
If your child just has hives , you will likely notice red or pink raised areas on your child’s skin that are itchy, varied in size, and come and go over several hours. They often don’t go away completely, though. Instead, older hives go away in one part of your child’s body, while new ones continue to appear somewhere else. Any individual hive shouldn’t last more than 24 hours. If it does, then your child may have a similar skin rash, such as erythema multiforme, and not simple hives.
Erythema multiforme is an uncommon type of immune system reaction that can also be caused by a penicillin allergy or things like other drugs, bacterial infections, or viral infections. Unlike hives, which come and go, the rash from erythema multiforme usually continues to spread and may last for one to two weeks. Other symptoms of erythema multiforme can include fever, joint aches, mouth sores, and red eyes.
Treatment For Allergies To Medications
One strategy for allergies to medication is to manage the problem by avoiding that medication. In some situations, this can be difficult, especially if you have a chronic condition such as arthritis that needs ongoing treatment.Other approaches that can be used include:
- antihistamine medication for milder allergic reactions
- steroid tablets or injections for more serious reactions
- desensitisation for some medication allergies
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What Happens When You Have An Allergic Reaction
Allergists recognize four types of allergic reactions: Type I or anaphylactic reactions, type II or cytotoxic reactions, type III or immunocomplex reactions and type IV or cell-mediated reactions.
Allergic reactions are exaggerated sensitivities that occur when your immune system responds abnormally to common substances such as pollen, dust and certain foods.
These substances, called allergens, are harmless in a majority of people. But for those who are allergic, they can cause reactions upon skin contact or when they are breathed, swallowed or injected.
Allergic reactions are quite common and may happen seconds to hours after contact with the allergen. Some reactions may take more than 24 hours to appear. Though many allergic reactions are mild, others may be dangerous or life-threatening. They may be localized, involving a small part of the body or may affect a large area or the whole body.
An allergic reaction begins when you touch, inhale or swallow an allergen. In response to this trigger, the body starts making a type of protein called IgE or immunoglobulin E.
How Is A Penicillin Allergy Confirmed
Your doctor will examine you thoroughly and consider any other possible causes of the problems that you are having.
If the doctor thinks that your symptoms point to a penicillin allergy, he or she may recommend that you undergo a skin test at an allergists office. Penicillin is one of the few drugs for which standardized allergy skin tests are available.
To ensure that your skin reacts normally, the provider will apply both a saline solution and a histamine solution. If your skin reacts to the saline, that means your skin is too sensitive and the test cannot be interpreted. The histamine solution should cause a red, raised, itchy area, similar to a mosquito bite. If there is no reaction, your skin test may not show an allergy even if you have one. For this reason, the test cannot be interpreted.
If your skin does not react to the saline, but reacts to the histamine, this validates the skin test: your skin has the capacity to react to a potential allergen.
At this point, there are two steps to allergy skin tests to penicillin. The first step is scratch tests, in which drops of two components of penicillin are placed on your skin. A scratch is made through each drop, and then it is checked after 15 minutes. A positive result looks like a red, itchy welt or a hive.
If both tests are negative, that indicates that you are at low risk for a severe, immediate allergic or anaphylactic reaction to penicillin.
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