A Guide To The 8 Most Common Classes Of Antibiotics
Antibiotics have prevented millions of deaths and radically changed healthcare during the last century. There are dozens of different types of antibiotics, with each of them grouped into different classes. The following list includes eight of the most common classes of antibiotics, what they are generally used for and some of the potential side effects.
Is It Possible To Prevent Urinary Tract Infections With Diet And Supplements
It is possible to reduce the chance that a UTI will develop with dietary methods and some supplements but prevention of all UTIs is unlikely with these methods. Supplements such as eating cranberries, taking vitamin C tablets, and eating yogurt and other substances also may reduce the chance that a UTI will develop . However, as stated in the prevention section, changes in a person’s lifestyle may reduce the chance getting a UTI as good as, if not better than, any diet or supplement.
Prevalence Of Urinary Tract Infection Among Outpatients In Shashemene Referral Hospital
We examined a total of 384 outpatients with complaints of urinary tract infection in Shashemene referral hospital and found 90.1% overall prevalence of UTI in the study area . The laboratory test results indicate that all samples 384 were positive for leukocyte esterase, while 88.5% were positive for nitrite and 11.5% were negative . On the basis of microscopy of urine, it was found that 90.1% of the samples were positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria . Of the total urine samples, 346 were positive and 38 were negative for the growth of different uropathogens on blood agar media . On the other hand, 340 were positive and 44 were negative on MacConkeys agar .
Table 1 Number of outpatients enrolled in the study and their corresponding age group
From the total patients with UTI compliant, 134 were in the old age group while 115 were in the young age group .
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Complicated & Recurrent Uti
Antibiotics should never be selected empirically for complicated UTI without culture susceptibility results . Management of pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and relapsing or recurrent UTI is often unsuccessful without therapy guided by culture and susceptibility results. However, therapy should be instituted while culture and susceptibility results are being awaited. Rational initial drug choices for complicated UTI include amoxicillin, fluoroquinolones, or trimethoprim-sulfonamide.3
Are There Any Over
Over-the-counter antibiotics for a UTI are not available. You should see your doctor to have your symptoms evaluated.
Your provider may recommend an OTC product called Uristat to numb your bladder and urethra to ease the burning pain during urination. Uristat can be bought without a prescription at the pharmacy. A similar phenazopyridine product called Pyridium is also available.
Take phenazopyridine for only 48 hours, and be aware it may cause your urine to turn a brown, orange or red color which may stain fabrics or contact lenses. It may be best to not wear contact lenses while being treated with phenazopyridine.
Phenazopyridine is not an antibiotic and will not cure a UTI.
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How Common Are Utis
According to the National Kidney Foundation, 20% of women will experience a UTI at some point in their life. Of those, one in five will have a second UTI, and 30% of that narrowed group will have a third. Additionally, 80% of women who have three UTIs will have repeat infections after that.
Men also experience UTIs, but far less frequently. Contrary to popular belief, you do not have to be sexually active to get a UTI, although it does increase your likelihood as intercourse can facilitate the spread of bacteria.
What Are Urinary Tract Infection Risk Factors
There are many risk factors for UTIs. In general, any interruption or impedance of the usual flow of urine is a risk factor for a UTI. For example, kidney stones, urethral strictures, an enlarged prostate, or any anatomical abnormalities in the urinary tract increases infection risk. This is due in part to the flushing or washout effect of flowing urine in effect, the pathogens have to “go against flow” because the majority of pathogens enter through the urethra and have to go retrograde to reach the bladder, ureters, and eventually the kidneys. Many investigators suggest that women are far more susceptible than men to UTIs because their urethra is short and its exit is close to the anus and vagina, which can be sources of pathogens.
People who require catheters have an increased risk as the catheter has none of the protective immune systems to eliminate bacteria and offers a direct connection to the bladder. Catheters that are designed to reduce the incidence of catheter-related infections are available , but are not used by many clinicians because of short-termed effectiveness, cost, and concern about antibiotic resistancedevelopment in bacteria.
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How Long Should I Take Antibiotics
Your doctor will let you know. Typically, for an uncomplicated infection, you’ll take antibiotics for 2 to 3 days. Some people will need to take these medicines for up to 7 to 10 days.
For a complicated infection, you might need to take antibiotics for 14 days or more.
If you still have symptoms after completing antibiotics, a follow-up urine test can show whether the germs are gone. If you still have an infection, you’ll need to take antibiotics for a longer period of time.
If you get UTIs often, you may need a prolonged course of antibiotics. And if sex causes your UTIs, you’ll take a dose of the medicine right before you have sex. You can also take antibiotics whenever you get a new UTI if youâre having symptoms and a positive urine culture.
How Long Do I Need To Take Antibiotics To Treat A Uti
How long you take antibiotics for a UTI depends on how severe your UTI is and which antibiotic youre prescribed. Some medications like fosfomycin only require one dose, while a more severe UTI might require 14 days or more of treatment. Most require 3 to 7 days of treatment.
Within the first 1 to 2 days of starting your antibiotics, youll probably notice your UTI symptoms start to fade away. If your UTI is more severe or youve had symptoms for a while before starting antibiotics, it might take a few more days for you to notice improvement.
In any case, its important to take all the antibiotics youre prescribed, even if you start feeling better before finishing them. Stopping antibiotics early can lead to antibiotic resistance, which means the medication might not work as well as it should if you need it to treat an infection in the future. It can also mean your UTI might come back if you havent treated it completely.
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What Is The Prognosis For A Urinary Tract Infection
A good prognosis is usual for spontaneously resolved and quickly treated UTIs. Even patients that have rapidly developing symptoms and early pyelonephritis can have a good prognosis if quickly and adequately treated. The prognosis begins to decline if the UTI is not quickly recognized or treated. Elderly and immunosuppressed patients may not have the UTI recognized early their prognosis may range from fair to poor, depending on how much damage is done to the urinary tract or if complications like sepsis occur. Like adults, most adequately treated children will have a good prognosis. Children and adults with recurrent UTIs may develop complications and a worse prognosis recurrent UTIs may be a symptom of an underlying problem with the urinary tract structure. These patients should be referred to a specialist for further evaluation.
Why Do Women Get Utis More Often Than Men
Women are more susceptible to getting a UTI thanks to their anatomy. Their urethras are both closer to the rectum and shorter in length than mens urethras are theyre also near the vagina. In other words, womens bodies naturally present a convenient access point for the myriad bacteria that commonly cause UTIs.
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Can I Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection
You can usually prevent a urinary tract infection with lifestyle changes. These tips can include:
In some post-menopausal women, a healthcare provider may suggest an estrogen-containing vaginal cream. This may reduce the risk of developing a UTI by changing the pH of the vagina. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have recurrent UTIs and have already gone through menopause.
Over-the-counter supplements are also available for UTIs. These are sometimes recommended for people who have frequent UTIs as another way to prevent them. Talk to your healthcare provider before starting any supplements and ask if these could be a good choice for you.
Is There Any Other Way To Prevent A Uti
While theres no foolproof way to ensure you never have a UTI, there are strategies and behaviors that may lower your risk:
- Stay hydrated.
- Women should wipe from front to back to stop the spread of bacteria.
- Avoid using douches, powders, sprays or other materials in the genital area.
Some physicians have begun recommending that patients add probiotics to their diet such as kefir, yogurt, various fermented foods, etc. as a form of prevention. No evidence indicates that probiotics can prevent a UTI on their own, but they do promote the growth of helpful bacteria in the vagina and bowels, which is beneficial for your overall health and may lower your risk of infection.
UTIs are commonplace so commonplace, in fact, that theyre one of the most frequently treated issues by telehealth professionals. If youre experiencing symptoms consistent with a UTI, dont wait until your schedule clears up to make an appointment with a physician. Dont wait for your doctors next in-office opening six weeks from now, either.
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What Are The Most Common Causes Of Utis
Most of the time when you go #1, what flows out flushes away some of the troublesome microbes hanging out around your nether region.
Usually urine is sterile so theres no bacteria in it, explains Sabitha Rajan, M.D., MSc, associate managing editor at MCG. One of the things that keeps us sterile is its continuous flow. Urine flows out of your bladder, down and out your urethra , and that flow keeps any bacteria from the outside from ascending.
Proper hygiene helps keep bacteria at bay but even the cleanest among us can get a UTI. Keep an eye out for these common symptoms:
- A burning sensation when peeing
- A frequent urge to urinate
- Bloody or cloudy urine
- Bladder cramps or pelvic pain
- And in the worst cases: fever, vomiting, and nausea
Women tend to be more susceptible to UTIs, partly because of the way their bodies are built, says Cheyenne Santiago, R.N., M.S.N., a managing editor at MCG. Men have a longer urethra that runs through the penis and farther away from the anus, so there is less of a chance for bacteria from stool and other sources to make their way to where they can cause problems.
Women, on the other hand, have a very short urethra, says Santiago. So can get bacteria forced up into your bladder.
Sex can also increase the risk of UTIs in women and so Santiago and Dr. Rajan recommend going to the bathroom after intercourse.
How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed
Your doctor will use the following tests to diagnose a urinary tract infection:
- Urinalysis: This test will examine the urine for red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. The number of white and red blood cells found in your urine can actually indicate an infection.
- Urine culture: A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This is an important test because it helps determine the appropriate treatment.
If your infection does not respond to treatment or if you keep getting infections over and over again, your doctor may use the following tests to examine your urinary tract for disease or injury:
- Ultrasound: In this test, sound waves create an image of the internal organs. This test is done on top of your skin, is painless and doesnt typically need any preparation.
- Cystoscopy: This test uses a special instrument fitted with a lens and a light source to see inside the bladder from the urethra.
- CT scan: Another imaging test, a CT scan is a type of X-ray that takes cross sections of the body . This test is much more precise than typical X-rays.
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Do Cranberries Cure Utis
No home remedies for UTIs exist. Drinking water can help to flush the infection from your body faster, and keep you hydrated for example, but its not a cure.
Similarly, cranberries are not a UTI remedy, although theres limited proof suggesting compounds present in cranberries, including sulfuric acid, may decrease the likelihood of repeat UTIs in women because they prevent certain bacteria from latching onto the wall of the urinary tract.
Between cranberry juice, cranberry extract and various cranberry supplements, no cranberry products are any better or more effective than others, as none have been specifically studied. That said, if you do seek out cranberry juice, opt for unsweetened cranberry juice, not cranberry juice cocktail.
What Happens When A Uti Goes Untreated
Thanks to early diagnosis and proper treatment, the vast majority of lower urinary tract infections result in no complications. However, if left untreated, a UTI can have serious ramifications notes the Mayo Clinic, including:
- Recurrent UTIs
- Premature birth and low birth weight
- Kidney damage, which can occur is an untreated UTI spreads from the bladder to the kidneys.
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What Other Antibiotics Are Used To Treat Uti
Other antibiotics used to treat UTI include:
- Beta-lactams, including penicillins and cephalosporins . Many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs.
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination antibiotic . Many organisms have shown resistance to some of these drugs.
- Fluoroquinolones . The risk of antibiotic resistance to this is developing. These should not be given to pregnant women or children.
- Tetracyclines are used for Mycoplasma or Chlamydia infections. These should not be given to pregnant women or children.
- Aminoglycosides are usually used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe UTIs.
Treatment Strategies For Recurrent Utis
Recurrent urinary tract infections, defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months, is very common among women these but arent treated exactly the same as standalone UTIs. One of the reasons: Continued intermittent courses of antibiotics are associated with allergic reactions, organ toxicities, future infection with resistant organisms, and more.
Because of this, its strongly recommended that you receive both a urinalysis and urine culture from your healthcare provider prior to initiating treatment. Once the results are in, the American Urological Association suggests that healthcare professionals do the following:
- Use first-line treatments. Nitrofurantoin, TMP-SMX, and fosfomycin are the initial go-tos. However, specific drug recommendations should be dependent on the local antibiogram. An antibiogram is a periodic summary of antimicrobial susceptibilities that helps track drug resistance trends.
- Repeat testing. If UTI symptoms persist after antimicrobial therapy, clinicians should repeat the urinalysis, urine culture, and antibiotic susceptibility testing to help guide further management.
- Try vaginal estrogen. For peri- and post-menopausal women with recurrent UTIs, vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended to reduce risk of future UTIs.
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How Long After Symptoms Start Do I Need Treatment
Generally, you should seek treatment right away if you are having any urinary pain or difficulty. Infections left untreated, if mild, sometimes self-resolve within two days however, there is a risk of migrating infection to the kidneys, which can cause severe illness, hospitalization, or serious complications.
Signs that the infection may be something other than cystitis should not be ignored:
- Severe back pain
- Shaking and chills
These may be signs of a more severe infection of other areas of the urinary tract, kidneys, or abdominal infections.
If you have repeated infections, you probably need further assessment to find a cause or to get more appropriate treatment.
What Can I Expect When I Go To The Doctor For A Uti
Once you get to the doctors office, they are going to ask you about your symptoms and make you pee in a cup. This is called a urinalysis .
Theyll look at it under a microscope and also dip it, says Dr. Rajan. The dipstick will tell the doctor very quickly if theres any white blood cells, which is a sign of infection, or red blood cells, which could be a sign of some microscopic trauma.
They will then send some of your pee off to a lab where they can test to see which bacteria is causing your infection. The results usually come back to you within one to two days. However, depending on how strongly your doctor feels that you have a UTI, they may put you on antibiotics right away. When the test arrives, they will double-check to see if they have selected the most effective meds to fight off the bacteria and make any needed adjustments.
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Antibiotics Commonly Used To Treat Uti
others), After a doctor has taken a test and confirmed you have a UTI, This antibiotic is widely used in the treatment of bacterial skin infections such as acne, The standard procedure ofNo, Doctors often use antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections , However, It is a safe Ceftriaxone Ceftriaxone is a very effective antibiotic for UTI in men and treats even severe cases, you have probably experienced a urinary tract infection , Antibiotics for UTI include many types and generic names, Keflex , many older people get UTI treatment even though they do not have these symptoms, How Can I Get Instant Relief From A UTI? Because most UTIs are bacterial, Penicillins