Side Effects Of Birth Control Pills And Antibiotics
There isnt much scientific research on the adverse side effects of taking antibiotics with birth control pills. In theory, similar side effects of both drugs may worsen when both types of drugs are taken together. These side effects may include:
Side effects vary depending on the person and the class of antibiotic taken. Not everyone who takes birth control pills and antibiotics experiences negative side effects.
Despite anecdotal evidence that antibiotics lessen the effectiveness of birth control pills, there may be other factors at play that lead to birth control failure. For example, you may not take your birth control pills on time or you may skip a pill or two if youre ill. You may not absorb the pill properly if youre vomiting. While it may seem that antibiotics are to blame, it may be a coincidence.
Past The Expiration Date
IUDs have expiry dates that indicate until when they can stay inside the uterus and still remain effective. If you keep it past its expiration date, you might have a slightly increased chance of being pregnant.
Although more research is needed to confirm whether keeping an IUD longer than its expiration date can trigger some side effects, experts do not really recommend it for your safety.
Enzyme Inducers = Use A Backup Method
This being said t is still important to ask your pharmacist about whether or not your antibiotic is considered broad-spectrum, because there are some antibiotics that do significantly interact with combined hormonal contraceptives.
Antibiotics that are known to definitely affect the efficacy of combined hormonal contraceptives are called enzyme inducers because they essentially make your body chew up the hormones in the birth control faster than normal. These types of antibiotics include the following:
Rifampin, Rifabutin and griseofulvin are antibiotics known to reduce the levels of hormones in the pill, the patch or the ring. It is very important that women on these antibiotics who also use combined hormonal contraception use a backup method of birth control while they are taking these antibiotics. The CDC has classified these antibiotics as category 3 interactions with combined hormonal contraceptives because when used together, the effectiveness of the birth control is reduced and pregnancy risk is increased.
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Which Medications Stop Hormonal Contraceptives From Working
Progestin is a hormone that is a common ingredient in different types of hormonal birth control. It protects against pregnancy by stopping ovulation and/or thickening the cervical mucus.
In most birth control pills, patch, and vaginal ring, estrogen is combined with the hormone progestin in order to prevent ovulation.
And although human behavior and error is a common reason why hormonal birth control may fail, other factors including medications may also make them less effective.
Heres how these medications can interact with a certain type of hormonal contraceptive method:
Do Antifungals Affect Birth Control
You can use most common antifungals without worrying that theyâll stop your birth control from working. This include two drugs doctors often use to treat vaginal yeast infections:
Griseofulvin is an antifungal doctors use to treat infections of the skin and scalp. It can raise your odds of an unplanned pregnancy if you use it with combined birth control pills .
If you take combined pills, use a backup birth control method for a month after your last dose of griseofulvin.
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Some Antibiotics Have Been Shown To Interfere With The Effectiveness Of Hormonal Contraceptives
Although not all antibiotics will make your hormonal birth control ineffective, there are certain ones to keep an eye out for.
Dr. Chirag Shah, an emergency medical physician, told INSIDER that rifampin, a medication commonly used in the management of tuberculosis, “interacts significantly with oral contraceptives and, in some cases, can render birth control ineffective.”
Rifampin works by increasing the enzymes in your body and so does the medication rifabutin. According to the National Health Service , both of these enzyme-inducing medications canmake your hormonal birth control less effective.
If you are concerned about a medication’s impact on your birth control, you may want to talk to your doctor whenever you are prescribed an antibiotic, especially rifampin or rifabutin. You may also want to use a secondary method of non-oral, non-hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy while you’re taking these antibiotics.
Who Should Not Use Mirena
Women who are pregnant or suspect they may be pregnant, should not use Mirena.
Patients with the following health conditions should not use Mirena
- Uterine abnormalities
- History of pelvic inflammatory disease
- Postpartum endometriosis or recent infected abortion
- Abnormal Pap smear
- Vaginal, cervical or genital infections
- Liver disease or tumors
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How To Prevent Birth Control Ineffectiveness
Always talk with your doctor about birth control interactions before taking new medications, including vitamins or over-the-counter medications. Ask if the medication or supplement will interfere with your birth control effectiveness. Even if more research is needed, its generally better to err on the side of caution. You can use backup forms of birth control in addition to oral contraceptives when taking medications that interfere with the effectiveness.
If you forget to use a backup method, you can take over-the-counter emergency contraception for up to five days after intercourse. For long term medications, such as retrovirals, diabetes medications, or anticonvulsants, it is best to talk with your provider about other contraception methods, such as long-acting reversible contraception or injectable progesterone.
What If I Take A Medication That Messes With Hormonal Birth Control
There are many highly effective types of birth control that are not affected by these medications, including all IUDs, the implant, and the shot. Barrier methods like condoms are also effective regardless of what medication youre taking.
In general, its good to remember that medicines can have powerful interactions with each otherand hormonal birth control is just another type of medicine. If a new medicine is prescribed for you, make sure to tell your health care provider about all of the medicines, herbal and vitamin supplements you regularly take.
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How Antibiotics Might Affect Birth Control
Some types of antibiotics have the potential to affect birth control because they can alter the bodys hormone levels. Hormonal birth control methods that these antibiotics might impact include:
- The pill
- The ring
- The shot
All four of these birth control methods contain the hormones estrogen and/or progestin which thickens the mucus in the cervix, making it difficult for sperm to fertilize an egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to reduce the chance of getting pregnant. The methods that contain estrogen also prevent you from ovulating, while progestin-only methods stop ovulation but not consistently. Certain antibiotics can lower the levels of estrogen and progestin in your body, potentially to the point of affecting your birth control.
Theoretically, antibiotics might also reduce your birth controls efficacy by interrupting the recirculation of estrogens in the body a process called enterohepatic circulation. They do this by killing the bacteria in the small intestine that help break the hormone down and redistribute it within the body.
For these reasons, many manufacturers have historically placed warnings on antibiotic labels to inform women about this risk. Over the years, scientists have done many studies on various types of antibiotics effects on hormonal birth control to determine which ones you should and should not take at the same time.
Which Antibiotics Affect Hormonal Birth Control
The only antibiotic that affects hormonal birth control is called rifampicin. Its a medication used for certain bacterial infections, including tuberculosis and some forms of meningitis.
The main reason why rifampicin is not compatible with hormonal contraceptives is that it affects the way the body metabolizes them. It speeds up the processing of contraceptives in the body and reduces the levels of the main components of birth control in the blood.
A systematic review published in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology in 2017 shows rifampicin increases the frequency of spontaneous ovulation in women taking hormonal contraceptives.
Rifampicin is the accepted international generic name for the drug across most of the world, but it is also known as rifampin in the U.S. Some manufacturers use specific brand names that can vary from country to country. The generic name should still be clear from the packaging. Rifampicin can sometimes come as part of a combined medication, a tablet that contains a mix of two or more drugs.
Contraceptives that are affected by rifampicin:
ontraceptives that are not affected by rifampicin:
Currently, hormonal contraceptives only work on female sex hormones, so there isnt a male hormonal contraceptive that can be affected by antibiotics. And antibiotics dont affect non-hormonal contraceptives like condoms or the copper IUD.
Antibiotics And Oral Contraceptives: Should We Worry
Andrew M. Kaunitz, MD
This transcript has been edited for clarity.
Since oral contraceptives first became available, there have been concerns that antibiotics might interfere with their efficacy. However, a review of studies examining pharmacokinetic outcomes and suppression of ovulation by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention authors concludes that common non-enzymeinducing antibiotics do not impair the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
In a recent report published in BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine , investigators reviewed thousands of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse drug reactions submitted to Britain’s regulatory authority. These ADRs referred to unintended pregnancy while taking medications in one of three categories:
ADRs involving control medications included nine pregnancies reported per 100,000 ADRs. The rates were 62 and 119, respectively, for ADRs involving non-enzymeinducing antibiotics and enzyme-inducing medications.
Thank you for the honor of your time. I am Andrew Kaunitz.
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Antibiotics That Can Affect Birth Control
Researchers have only proven that two types of antibiotics can affect the efficacy of your birth control:
- Rifampin: Health care providers prescribe this medication to treat tuberculosis. Rifampin causes the enzymes in your liver to break estrogens down faster than normal, lowering those hormone levels in your body and possibly reducing your birth controls efficacy. Some women might experience spotting between their periods while taking rifampin, but this doesnt mean their birth control isnt working.
- Rifabutin: Health care providers prescribe this medication to prevent an infection called mycobacterium avium complex in HIV patients, as well as to treat tuberculosis. It, too, reduces the levels of birth control hormones that suppress ovulation but to a lesser degree than rifampin.
Both of these medications belong to a class of antibiotics called rifamycins. Scientists have not been able to prove that any other rifamycins, however, affect birth control.
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What To Do If Youre On A Medication That Might Affect Your Contraception
If youre on medication that can change how effective your hormonal contraceptive is, its important to take other steps to avoid an unintended pregnancy. This means using a barrier contraceptive like a condom or diaphragm.
Dont try to cancel out the antibiotics by doubling up on birth control pills the way the medications interact in your body is complicated and unpredictable, so taking a bigger dose of contraceptives doesnt work.
It isnt always clear how long antibiotics continue to affect hormonal birth control, so doctors usually recommend continuing to use a barrier method or alternative to hormonal contraception to prevent pregnancy for at least seven days after the end of the antibiotic course. This can be a nice time to try other ways of having sex or being intimate.
Certain Meds Do Interfere With Birth Controlnot Most Antibiotics Though
Many women using birth control with hormonesincluding the pill, the patch, and the ringhave heard that antibiotics can make these methods less effective. Thankfully, thats not true for most antibiotics. But there are medicines that can interfere with some kinds of birth control. Lets talk details, why these meds mess with birth control, and what alternatives women taking these meds have.
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Herbal Supplements And Vitamins
St. Johns wort is a supplement that people take to help with symptoms of depression, insomnia, or anxiety. Soy isoflavones is from a soybean plant and may reduce menopause-related hot flashes or help maintain strong bones. Research has shown that supplements like these may reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.
There is some thought that St. Johns Wort, typically used to help with symptoms of depression, contains ingredients which may speed up the breakdown of estrogen, rendering birth control less effective, Dr. Torres says. Vitamin C, often taken to boost immune function, can interact with birth control as well. Estrogen can cause increases in vitamin C levels, which could potentially be problematic.
Is There Anything Your Doctor Can Prescribe
Oral medication such as Accutane is a great choice for patients who have tried everything without success to control their acne, notes Green.
Severe cases may also be given oral antibiotics or topical retinoids, she adds. These prescriptions work by reducing bacteria, excess oil, and inflammation which results in fewer breakouts.
Another option is spironolactone. It blocks the hormones that can cause acne.
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Slection Des Donnes :
Recherche dans Medline des articles publiés entre 1975 et septembre 1998 inclusivement. Il sagissait de rechercher notamment les mots-clés « antibiotic », « oral contraceptive » et « pregnancy ». Les articles publiés, de même que les références accompagnant ces articles, ont été passés en revue. Les articles faisant état des mécanismes de linteraction entre les antibiotiques et les contraceptifs oraux ont été inclus dans létude.
What Are The Differences Between Kyleena Mirena And Skyla
Kyleena, Mirena, and Skyla are all T-shaped contraceptive devices that slowly release levonorgestrel and are placed inside a womans uterus to prevent pregnancy. The main differences between them are how long they last for, how much levonorgestrel they release, and the size of the device.
For more information about the differences between Kyleena, Mirena, and Skyla, see here.
- Will antibiotics stop my contraception working? NHS
- Reminder: Most broad-spectrum antibiotics do not interact with combined oral contraceptives BPAC BPJ Issue 61.
- Simmons KB, Haddad LB, Nanda K, Curtis KM. Drug interactions between non-rifamycin antibiotics and hormonal contraception: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jan 218:88-97.e14. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.07.003. Epub 2017 Jul 8. PMID: 28694152.
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How To Take Birth Control Pills Correctly
When used as directed, birth control pills are up to 99 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. Most birth control pills are taken daily for 21 days on and seven days off. Some pills are taken for 28 straight days and others for 91 straight days. Pills may be different colors to indicate different levels of hormones. Some days you may take pills that contain no hormones. Theyre meant to keep you in the habit of taking your pills.
Your doctor will advise you about when to start taking your pills. This is usually the first Sunday after your menstrual cycle starts or the first day of your menstrual cycle. You should take your pills at the same time each day. If you dont take your pills consistently, your risk of becoming pregnant increases.
Birth control pills are just one of many birth control options. Other options include:
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends asking yourself these questions when deciding which option is best for you:
- Do you want to have children some day?
- Do you have any medical problems?
- How often do you have sex?
- How many sex partners do you have?
- Will the birth control prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases?
- How well does the birth control work?
- What are the side effects?
- Is it difficult or inconvenient to use?
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What About Changing Diet And Skin Care
If you believe your acne is linked to your IUD, changing up your skin care routine may be beneficial.
Adding ingredients like retinol to your regime can help encourage the turnover of skin cells.
The link between diet and hormonal acne is still unclear, but certain dietary changes may help control breakouts, too.
Try following a low-glycemic diet involving plenty of fresh vegetables and beans.
Try to cut back on not necessarily eliminate foods and drinks that quickly raise your blood sugar, such as:
- white bread
- sugary drinks