Thursday, May 16, 2024

How To Overcome Antibiotic Resistance

Probiotics Postbiotics And Synbiotics

Understanding and Overcoming Antibiotic Resistance in the GI Tract

Identification of novel animal-origin probiotics, and postbiotics, the non-viable microbial probiotics or probiotic metabolites that have biological activities in host , and using them as alternative therapeutic combinations may facilitate the development of improved dosing regimens and strategies to prevent economic loss due to enteric infections.

Probiotics, the live microorganisms or microbial feed supplements primarily comprise of two classes of lactic acid-producing microorganisms: the Bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria including species of Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Vagococcus, Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Streptococcus, and Weissella. Most LAB, since generally regarded as safe status, and abundance of some genera in GI tract, mammary gland and feminine genitourinary tract are regarded as alternative health-promoting strategies. Advances in next generation sequencing and genetic engineering has enabled scientists to develop future strategies, such as bioengineered probiotics or pharmabiotics, which may become a bio-therapeutic or prophylactic strategy against bacterial infection. Bioengineered probiotics with manifold immunogenic properties could be a possible option against antibiotics. Engineered or recombinant probiotics could be personalized to deliver drugs, therapeutic proteins and gene therapy vectors with great competence, with a higher degree of site specificity than common drug administration regimes.

This Has Nothing To Do With More People Getting Sick This Is A Cultural Phenomenon Dr Marc Sprenger On Antibiotic Overprescription

Until recently antibiotics in the US actually listed animal growth as an indication for use on antibiotic labels and a prescription was not required for farmers to obtain them. To illustrate what a problem this is: just last November a strain of E. coli was discovered in Chinese pigs to be resistant to colistin a last-resort antibiotic that has only been used in the US in the most dire cases of human infection, untreatable by all other antibiotics. In less than six months the CDC detected that strain of E. coli in a patient in Pennsylvania.

So why not just develop new antibiotics that the bacteria cant resist? It has been several decades since a drug company developed and sold a new antibiotic. You would like to have new antibiotics to treat infections with resistant bacteria, but if you look at the timeline it is empty for almost 30 years, Sprenger says.

Thats because the process of developing any new drug is extremely expensive and the potential profit in an antibiotic after that massive investment is relatively low. According to Sprenger, there are no legal instruments to prohibit the use of a new antibiotic. What that means is if a new antibiotic is released theres no way to stop the world from overusing it. At current usage levels a new antibiotic, he says, would only have about two years on the market before bacterial resistance to it develops.

How do we get ourselves out of this?

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Livestock As A Major Contributor Of Antibiotic

Use of antimicrobials in animal feeding as growth-promoters is strongly correlated with emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat infectious diseases. Many food-producing animals, especially the poultry, pigs and cattle are treated with antibiotics to prevent infections and to compensate for unhygienic conditions in commercial livestock farms. For instance, the antibiotic use in livestock in India is fourth highest in the world after China , the United States , and Brazil . In United States, 80% of sold antibiotics are used in livestock alone . Nevertheless, non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal husbandry due to its contribution to increase antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is of immense public health concern .

Bacteria develop resistance toward antibiotics when exposed to low doses over long periods. A common practice is to feed low-dose antibiotics to the livestock to promote body weight gain. In addition, antibiotics are also used arbitrarily to prevent diseases in crowded herds or flocks. Such practices contribute to emergence and spread of resistance to antibiotics. These practices lead to massive accumulation of antibiotics in the environment, and acquisition of resistance in microorganisms coming in contact with them . Many countries including European Union have imposed a ban on use of some antibiotics in feed or as growth promoters .

Interagency Coordination Group On Antimicrobial Resistance

Antibiotic resistance is crisis we cannot ignore, UN ...

The United Nations Secretary-General has established IACG to improve coordination between international organizations and to ensure effective global action against this threat to health security. The IACG is co-chaired by the UN Deputy Secretary-General and the Director General of WHO and comprises high level representatives of relevant UN agencies, other international organizations, and individual experts across different sectors.

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The End Of Antibiotics

Antibiotics are now no longer routinely used to treat infections because:

  • many infections are caused by viruses, so antibiotics are not effective
  • antibiotics are often unlikely to speed up the healing process and can cause side effects
  • the more antibiotics are used to treat trivial conditions, the more likely they are to become ineffective for treating more serious conditions

Both the NHS and health organisations across the world are trying to reduce the use of antibiotics, especially for health problems that are not serious, such as chest infections, ear infections in children and sore throats.

New Tools For Combating Antibiotic Resistance

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Scale Of Antibiotic Use In Human And Animals

As per 2010 statistical data, India with the consumption of 12.9 × 109 units was the largest consumer of antibiotics, followed by China, which used 10.0 × 109 units , while the United States used 6.8 × 109 units . Seventy-six percent of the overall rise in antibiotic use during the decade 2000 to 2010 was noted in BRICS countries .

Among five major rising national economies i.e., BRICS countries, 23% of the rise in the retail antibiotic sales was attributed to India, while around 57% of the increase in medical sector was in China. Overall, in India, the pattern of antibiotic use is changing with decline in the use of ampicillin and co-trimoxazole and increase in quinolone consumption. The above scale-up in antibiotic use in India was due to swift economic growth, increasing incomes and incidences of infectious diseases .

Plymouth Institute Of Health And Care Research

Deploying artificial genes to overcome antibiotic resistance | Logan Collins | TEDxMileHigh

The Plymouth Institute of Health and Care Research is a thriving community that conducts adventurous world-leading research with the explicit purpose of improving the health and care of the populations we serve.

Our work is grounded in the needs of the people of the South West and other rural, coastal, and deprived communities worldwide, but PIHRs research has national and international reach and impact.

Find out more about the work of PIHR

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Why Is This Issue Important Why Should I Care

Without effective antibiotics many routine treatments will become increasingly dangerous. Setting broken bones, basic operations, even chemotherapy and animal health all rely on access to antibiotics that work.

When infections can no longer be treated by first-line antibiotics, more expensive medicines must be used. A longer duration of illness and treatment, often in hospitals, increases health care costs as well as the economic burden on families and societies.

Antibiotic resistant infections are one of the leading threats to human health and modern medicine. The World Health Organisation and international governments have stated that urgent measures are needed to avert the crisis we face.

If new, powerful antibiotic drugs are not discovered, we may return to the pre-antibiotic era.

Professor Mathew Upton

Drug Resistance As A Continued Process

Microorganisms are highly astute and evolve mechanisms swiftly to endure and proliferate in environments turning unfavorable. Although antibiotic-resistance started appearing soon after the clinical introduction of antibiotics, the problem was slow and ignored initially as a matter of low distress. Sulfonamide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes appeared in the human clinical settings in early the 1930s, while penicillin-resistant S. pyogenes was noted in the 1940s. Emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria was highlighted in the 1950s .

Table 1. Overview of the development of bacterial resistance against common antibiotics.

Two distinct pathways, namely vertical evolution , and horizontal evolution are regarded as prime modes of development of antibiotic-resistance. The comprehensive genomic analysis of human and animal pathogens has shown that horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism of transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes among microorganisms .

The antibiotic resistance, though a grave concern, was overlooked for a long period . However, incidences that attracted the attention of clinicians and biochemists included detection of bacteria carrying extended spectrum -lactamases imparting resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins, extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacteriaceae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa .

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Global Antibiotic Research And Development Partnership

A joint initiative of WHO and Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative , GARDP encourages research and development through public-private partnerships. By 2023, the partnership aims to develop and deliver up to four new treatments, through improvement of existing antibiotics and acceleration of the entry of new antibiotic drugs.

We Can Only Really Slow The Development Of Resistance Were Not Going To Stop It Completely Even Appropriate Use Of Antibiotics Does Contribute To Resistance Amanda Jezek Vice President For Public Policy And Government Relations Infectious Diseases Society Of America

Health Observation: Antibiotic Resistance at A Glance

The CDC funds state health departments around the US to maintain a network of antibiotic resistant bacteria data and samples. Says Patel: We can use this to give us national estimates of infection rates to see how bacteria are changing, test new drugs against bacteria, and we also have used the bacteria we collect through this to help with vaccine development. Though, it should be noted, the continued success of the programme could be in jeopardy as US President Donald Trumps proposed budget suggests cutting funds to the CDC by 17% .

But there are also some non-traditional methods being attempted. Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, has established a unique Antibiotic Resistance Center. One of its main goals is to build diagnostic tests using mutated bacteria collected by the national surveillance system and physicians in their own clinic that can spot resistant bacteria.

The goal is to have scientists, clinicians, and epidemiologists all working together to address this issue. Thats something that hasnt traditionally happened. There has been division between what the scientists and clinicians are doing, says the centres director David Weiss. Im not a doctor. I need to know from the clinicians a lot of what theyre seeing on the front lines to help guide our research to be as relevant as possible.

Animals also develop antibiotic resistance, which means they could pass their drug-resistant bacteria onto you, too.

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Fix The Broken Antibiotic Market

In 2020, the U.S. must do more to stimulate the innovation of urgently needed new antibiotics. Even with the appropriate use of antibiotics, bacteria will continue to develop resistance, and new drugs will be needed to treat infections. Unfortunately, there are not enough antibiotics in development to keep pace with evolving bacteria. To make matters worse, many major pharmaceutical companies are limiting or stopping their investments in antibiotic innovation because of low returns on investment.

Consistent with recommendations from numerous studies and commissions, Pew sees economic incentives as essential to help catalyze development of antibiotics that can treat the increasingly resistant strains of bacteria. Congress should pass the Developing an Innovative Strategy for Antimicrobial Resistant Microorganisms Act of 2019, which would change the way Medicare reimburses hospitals for treating patients with bacterial infections by removing financial disincentives that discourage hospitals from using new antibiotics even when they are better able to treat a resistant infection. The federal government should create incentives to help drug companies recoup the costs of bringing to market novel antibiotics that address unmet needs.

Additionally, to accelerate the science behind antibiotic discovery, Pew urges academic institutions, nonprofits, and drug companies to continue to contribute data from their antibiotic research programs to our open-access .

Antibiotic Resistance: How It Happens And Strategies To Decrease The Spread Of Resistance

Welcome and Overview

This session will discuss antibiotic resistance and how it develops, existing threats from antibiotic resistant organisms, the opportunities that exist for improving the judicious use of antibiotics, and strategies and resources to decrease the development of antibiotic resistance and prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in long-term care organizations.

This session is one of a series of six sessions for nursing homes to support implementation of principles and practices of antibiotic stewarship and prevention and management of C. difficile infections.

Objectives

  • Describe what is meant by antibiotic resistance.
  • Explain how antibiotic resistance develops.
  • Define key antibiotic resistant organisms in healthcare.
  • Employ strategies to decrease the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

How can you use this session?

This session focuses on antibiotic resistance in the nursing home setting. The material is intended to be useful for guiding individual practice and as an educational resource for staff involved in the care of nursing home residents. Nursing home leaders can review the content in this session and decide which components would be helpful to staff in their facility. The components can be shared and discussed during staff education sessions, or they can be accessed by staff online at any time.

Depending on which components you choose to review and/or share and discuss with staff, this session may take 30-90 minutes.

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Causes Of Antibiotic Resistance

Here we come to the main question, who is to blame for the fact that bacteria do not die when antibacterial agents are exposed to them, but they are directly degenerated, acquiring new properties that are far from helping humanity? What provokes such changes occurring with microorganisms that are the cause of many diseases with which mankind has been struggling for more than a decade?

It is clear that the true cause of development of antibiotic resistance is the ability of living organisms to survive in different conditions, adapting to them in different ways. But the ability to dodge a deadly projectile in the face of an antibiotic, which in theory should carry death to them, the bacteria do not. So how does it turn out that they not only survive, but also improve along with the improvement of pharmaceutical technologies?

It should be understood that if there is a problem , then there are provoking factors that create conditions for it. Just in this matter, we now try to understand.

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Antibiotic Resistance: How Ai Can Tackle The Superbug Threat

Can we overcome antibiotic resistance?

Researchers are employing artificial intelligence to combat the growing global threat of antibiotic resistance.

ByDarcy Jimenez

As the world continues to grapple with the Covid-19 pandemic, another health crisis is looming: antibiotic resistance. Bacterial resistance is something that occurs naturally, but widespread antibiotic misuse has propelled antimicrobial resistance to major global health threat status at least 700,000 people are killed by drug-resistant superbugs every year and by 2050, this number could reach 10 million.

A report by the World Health Organization, published earlier this year, also found that none of the 43 antibiotics currently under development sufficiently address the problem of drug resistance in the bacteria considered most dangerous to public health.

The situation, as it stands, looks bleak but there is hope. Advances in technology are vastly improving the way researchers discover and develop drugs, and antibiotics are no exception. Researchers across the globe are employing artificial intelligence in new and innovative ways to combat the growing threat of antibiotic resistance, and some are seeing promising results.

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Why You Should Care

Antibiotic resistance has spread around the world, and it’s making some diseases, such as meningitis or pneumonia, more difficult to treat. You might need stronger, more expensive drugs. Or you might need to take them longer. You also might not get well as quickly, or you could develop other health issues.

Each year, an estimated 2 million people in the U.S. develop infections that are resistant to antibiotics. In some cases, these infections result in death.

Resistance also makes it more difficult to care for people with chronic diseases. Some people need medical treatments like chemotherapy, surgery, or dialysis, and they sometimes take antibiotics to help reduce the risk of infection.

Small Molecules With A Big Effect

The small molecules that Dr. Shoham and his team have developed can attach themselves to toxin-producing proteins in bacteria belonging to Gram-positive species.

The species include Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterium behind staph infections, and its highly resistant version methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus .

The effect is to stop the bacteria in these strains from being able to make toxins that kill immune cells.

The team treated mice with sepsis caused by S. aureus with the small molecules and found that they all survived, whereas 70 percent of untreated mice died.

The small molecules also appeared to increase the effectiveness of antibiotics.

Mice with S. aureus sepsis that were treated both with antibiotics and the small molecules had ten times lower levels of bacteria in their blood than infected mice that only received antibiotics.

The researchers also carried out some preliminary tests that showed that the small molecules had a similar effect in several other strains of Gram-positive bacteria. They stopped them from being able to kill immune cells.

One of the species is well-known for causing catheter infections, and another for causing strep throat.

These results, conclude the authors, indicate broad-spectrum efficacy against Gram-positive pathogens.

The team is in the process of commercializing two of the small molecules as drugs. Both have shown the ability to boost the effectiveness of antibiotics in mouse models of infection.

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