Sinus Anatomy And Function
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When Does Antibiotic Resistance Occur
Antibiotic resistance occurs in a persons own body and within the community when certain drugs no longer work for a specific type of germ. This can occur when bacteria change in response to exposure to antibiotics so that the antibiotics no longer work efficiently against the bacteria.
Therefore, allergists and other specialists recommend limiting the use of antibiotics unless:
- Symptoms last over seven to 10 days
- Specific symptoms are present
- A fever is present
List Of Types And Dosages
Although antibiotics can help clear a tooth infection, it is important to use the appropriate antibiotic in each situation.
The type of antibiotic a dentist recommends will vary depending on the bacteria causing the infection. This is because different antibiotics work in different ways to eliminate different strains of bacteria.
As a study in the Dentistry Journal notes, there are over 150 different strains of bacteria that occur in the mouth. Many of these bacteria have the potential to grow and cause an infection.
Treatment may change depending on the bacteria causing the infection, though much of the time, dentists simply recommend an antibiotic that works against many types.
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Is Your Sinus Infection Acute Or Chronic
A short-term sinus infection is often referred to as acute sinusitis. Most cases of acute sinusitis last about a week, but this type of short-term sinus infection can last up to four weeks. If you suffer from a sinus infection that lasts longer than 12 weeks despite treatment from your doctor, its considered chronic sinusitis.
What Is The Best Antibiotic For Urinary Tract Infection
The urinary tract is comprised of the ureters , kidneys, bladder, and urethra . Urinary tract infections wake forest nc are most commonly located in the urethra and bladder and while typically caused by bacteria, UTIs can also be viral or fungal. For patients suffering from a bacterial UTI, they may be curious about what antibiotics are the best for treating their infection.
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The Course Of Antibiotic Therapy
When it comes to antibiotics, getting the proper duration of the correct antibiotic safely is the priority. However, the simple fact is that people will usually stop taking an antibiotic as soon as they start feeling better. And that’s a mistake. Not only does not finishing the full course increase the likelihood of recurrence, but it also promotes the development of drug resistance.
Antibiotics work by eliminating the majority of bacteria while allowing the immune system to take care of the rest. By not completing a course of antibiotics, the surviving bacteria have the opportunity to thrive, some of which may be fully or partially resistant to the antibiotic. If these are allowed to predominate, antibiotic-resistant strains and superbugs can develop.
What Is A Sinus Infection Or Sinusitis
A sinus infection is the swelling or inflammation of the tissue that lines the nasal passages. On the other, hand chronic sinus infections are called sinusitis.
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. A more precise name for this illness is rhinosinusitis . In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the nose and the sinuses become inflamed.
The paranasal sinuses are part of the upper airways and connected to the nasal cavity. Viruses or bacteria trigger an inflammation, which causes the mucous membranes to swell up.
This may prevent fluid from draining from the sinuses. If that happens, the fluid becomes thicker and the sinuses fill up with the viscous, often yellow-green mucus. Allergies, nasal polyps, a deviated nasal septum or a weakened immune system can all make sinusitis more likely.
As a result, sinuses become blocked by fluid, causing bacteria and germs to proliferate and cause further infection. A lot of people experience pain in their forehead, jaw, and around their eyes, and less commonly toothache.
The pain usually gets worse if you lean forward, for example when getting up out of bed. Sinusitis is often associated with a fever, cough and runny nose, and it makes people feel tired and groggy. It may be acute and soon disappear again, but in rarer cases it lasts longer and becomes chronic.
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What Are The Best Antibiotics For Sinus Infection Do Doctors Prescribe For You
There are many antibiotics that your doctor or physician may prescribe to help treat your sinus infection. Some of these may even be familiar to you.
These antibiotics are effective in treating sinus infection, however, these drugs do carry side effects. You should only be taken according to what your doctor or physician has prescribed. Always follow their instructions to achieve the best results.
What Is A Sinus Infection
The sinuses are cavities in the head that are filled with air. These air-filled pockets are lined with a very thin layer of mucus that functions to collect particles from the air that are breathed in, such as dust, germs, or other particles.
Very small hair-like projections function to sweep the mucus, along with any particles trapped inside of the mucus. The germ- or dirt-filled mucus then slides down the back of the throat and into the stomach where stomach acid works to kill any germs.
When a sinus infection occurs, this natural process involving mucus flow is blocked.
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When Do You Really Need Antibiotics For That Sinus Infection
- By Monique Tello, MD, MPH, Contributor
It was February, and clinic was teeming with respiratory infections of all kinds: mostly the common cold, but also bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinus infections. The patients were coming in usually thinking that they needed antibiotics for their sinus infection, or another respiratory infection.The first patient on my schedule was a healthcare provider with sinus infection written down as her main issue.* Shed had about two weeks of nasal and sinus congestion which she blamed on a viral upper respiratory infection . Her two young kids had been sick with colds all winter, so she wasnt surprised to have these symptoms, along with endless postnasal drip and a cough.
Her congestion had improved a bit at one point, and she thought that she was finally getting better. But then, the day before her appointment, she awoke with throbbing pain between her eyes, completely blocked nasal passages, and, more concerning to her, green pus oozing from her left tear duct. She had body aches, chills, and extreme fatigue.
Tips For Treating Chronic Sinus Infections
No matter the season, having a cold is never convenient. Its even worse when your cold turns into a sinus infection. A sinus infection will stick around long after symptoms of an upper respiratory infection are gone. You might even know its a sinus infection because you get sinus infections frequently. Perhaps your doctor diagnosed your sinus infection after you just couldnt seem to get better. After all, since almost 30 million Americans suffer from sinusitis, your doctor likely treats them a lot.
The question is, when do you need to see a specialist? If your sinus infection just isnt going away, or if you seem to get recurrent sinus infections, it may be time to see an ear, nose, and throat specialist.
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What Are The Best Home Remedies For Sinus Infections
There are a few simple home remedies that can be effective for relieving your pain and helping you clear your sinuses. To avoid using medications, try a warm compress on the nose and face, and flush nasal passages with a warm saline irrigation, says Dr. Elmore.
A homemade solution for nasal irrigation is one of the best home treatments for a sinus infection. You can use a syringe or a neti pot to stream a solution of non-iodized salt, baking soda, and lukewarm distilled water through the nostrils to help keep your nasal passages clean. Or, you can choose a product at your pharmacy that is already prepared and ready to mix packets.
Other home remedies for sinus infections include staying hydrated by drinking a lot of water, using decongestant nasal sprays, and inhaling steam over the stove or in the shower. Certain lifestyle adjustments may also promote nasal drainage such as sleeping with your head elevated at night or keeping a humidifier running in your home to avoid an arid environment.
To relieve pain at home, you can use a warm compress or take over-the-counter pain medications to reduce headaches and facial pain from congestion.
How The Antibiotic Is Administered
Depending on the type and location of the infection, the choice of antibiotic will differ. Eye infections can often be treated with antibiotic eye drops while cuts and scrapes can be relieved with topical ointments. Other infections, such as urinary tract infections or pneumonia, may require pills.
As a general rule, topical antibiotics are suitable for some specific infections at localized sites whereas oral and intravenous antibiotics are needed for more severe and systemic infections. For the most severe infections , intravenous antibiotics are usually but not always required.
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Antibiotics For A Severe Sinus Infection
You may be surprised that antibiotics are not listed as the first step in treatment. While many patients with sinusitis expect antibiotics, they aren’t usually needed if good drainage is achieved.
Antibiotics have potential disadvantages. They can trigger allergic reactions or cause side effects. Widespread use of antibiotics has encouraged the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria . And many of these drugs are expensive.
Still, if your sinusitis does not improve with two to four days of drainage therapy, or if it’s very severe to begin with, it probably needs an antibiotic to help get rid of the trapped bacteria. Antibiotic therapy for just three to seven days is generally as effective as traditional 10- to 14-day treatment for uncomplicated acute sinusitis.
Many bacteria can cause acute sinusitis the most common include some with fearsome names like Pneumococcus, Streptococcus, Hemophilus, and Moraxella. Unless you have a sinus puncture , there’s really no way to know which bacteria are causing your sinusitis. Cultures of your mucus or your nose, even if they are obtained through a nasal speculum, are not helpful because they are always contaminated by the many bacteria that live in every nose.
Most Common Bacteria That Cause Utis
Based on a study by The National Center for Biotechnology Information, the bacteria most commonly associated with causing UTIs are:
- Escherichia coli
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Based on the symptoms the patient is experiencing and before any testing is done to officially determine the infection type, the doctor prescribes first line antibiotics. For most UTIs, the prescribed antibiotic will cure the infection and not require any further testing.
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The Type Of Bacteria Involved
Bacteria are divided into two types depending on their external structure:
- Gram-positive bacteria which has thick, waxy external layer
- Gram-negative bacteria which has an extra lipid layer that acts as a barrier against certain antibiotics
When choosing an antibiotic, your healthcare provider first considers the type of bacteria involved. The type of bacteria can help determine which antibiotic drugs to choose, since not all antibiotics affect all bacteria.
What Are The Most Common Antibiotics Used For Sinusitis
Amoxicillin remains the drug of choice for acute, uncomplicated bacterial sinusitis. Amoxicillin is most effective when given frequently enough to sustain adequate levels in the infected tissue. While often prescribed twice daily, it is even more effective if taken in 3 or 4 divided doses. Amoxicillin is typically prescribed for 7-10 days at a time. While it is critical to finish the entire 10 day course of antibiotics when treating strep throat, there is evidence that shorter courses of treatment may be sufficient for most cases of sinusitis. Amoxicillin is closely related to the parent compound penicillin and should not be prescribed in patients who are penicillin allergic.
Cephalosporins and Augmentin are considered broad-spectrum antibiotics because they have enhanced effectiveness against a wider range of bacteria, including those that are resistant to ordinary penicillin or amoxicillin. If the patient does not improve within the first week on amoxicillin, a change to Augmentin or to a cephalosporin such as Ceftin, Cefzil, Omnicef, or Suprax is reasonable. Although these drugs have a similar mechanism of action to penicillin, they generally can be taken in adequate doses once or twice daily. These medications should be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of penicillin allergy, as cross-reaction may occur.
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Whether You Actually Need Antibiotics
Ultimately the most important question everyone should ask is: Do you really need a course of antibiotics to treat your infection?
Generally speaking, you do not need an antibiotic every time you have an infection or might have an infection. They are not there to take “just in case” or to save for another occasion if you cut your treatment short. Both are bad ideas. Antibiotics do not work for colds or most upper respiratory infections.
Focus instead on avoiding infections by following three simple tips:
- Get vaccinated for both bacterial and viral infections. Speak with your healthcare provider about which ones you need or are missing.
- Wash your hands. This is not about being germ-phobic. It’s about understanding that your hands are among the most effective vectors of infection. Wash thoroughly, ideally with an antibacterial wash, whenever you are in a public place where you might pick up a bug.
- Cover your mouth when you sneeze or a cough. Try to avoid doing so into your hands as this can spread an infection to others. Instead, use a tissue or the crook of your elbow. If in a confined space such as an airplane, consider wearing a disposable mask if you are ill or at risk of infection.
Four Of The Best Kinds Of Antibiotic For Tooth Infection
Antibiotics just kill bacteria, right? Well, its not as simple as that. In fact, each kind of antibiotic targets a different strain of bacteria. And because there are over 150 strains of bacteria in our mouths, thats a pretty wide variety of medicine.
Its important to use the right antibiotic that targets the cause of your infection. Learn about the four most common kinds of antibiotics that can help you if you have a tooth infection below.
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Get Your Antibiotics Fast
No one likes being sick, and having a sinus infection can be very uncomfortable. Getting antibiotics as fast as possible is crucial to healing, and is made possible with PlushCare. Our online doctors can diagnose your sinus infection, write a prescription, and send it to your local pharmacy in 15 minutes. PlushCare can help you effectively, quickly, and easily treat your sinus infection.
How Long Do I Need To Take Antibiotics For
No matter which kind of antibiotic suits you and your tooth infection best, its crucial to complete the full round of treatment.Sometimes, your symptoms may improve after a day or two. However, if the dentist or pharmacist recommends that you take it for an entire week, dont stop.
Taking antibiotics even though your symptoms disappeared can help ensure that the infection is truly healed and wont return.
The only reason you should stop taking a form of prescribed antibiotics is if youre having an allergic reaction to them. Even then, you should consult your dentist before you make a switch.
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Lingering Sinus Infection Or Chronic Runny Nose
A lingering sinus infection is different from a chronic runny nose. Chronic runny nose typically comes from allergies or other irritants in the air. However, this can turn into an infection over time.
When the sinuses become infected, the allergies, irritants, or viral cold have caused swelling in the nose thats blocked the drainage pathways. Consequently, fluid and mucous accumulate in the sinuses, where it has become infected with bacteria.
If youve been sick more than 10 days and begin to experience other symptoms like facial pressure, headache, and fever, youre dealing with more than a chronic runny nose.
What The Treatment For Sinus Infections
In order to eradicate the infection, youll need an antibiotic.
Some people continue to experience a lingering sinus infection even after antibiotics. Sinuses are considered a closed cavity. Removing infection from a closed cavity can require more prolonged antibiotic usage compared to infections that occur in an open cavity .
A sinus infection might require 2-4 weeks of antibiotics plus additional methods to encourage drainage of the sinuses. For a sinus infection to clear completely, we often recommend saline sprays, topical steroid sprays , and decongestants in addition to an antibiotic.
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