Best Postoperative Antibiotic Choice For Cats And Dogs Having Gastrointestinal Surgery
What is the Best Postoperative Antibiotic Choice for Cats and Dogs Having Gastrointestinal surgery?
There is no one size fits all answer. Gastrointestinal surgery is clean-contaminated. For the majority of clean-contaminated procedures, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is all that is necessary. In our hospitals, Cefazolin given at induction and every 90 minutes for procedures lasting that long is the norm.
The continuation of antibiotic therapy beyond this duration does nothing to prevent dehiscence or peritonitis, it only makes it harder to diagnose. Postoperative antibiotic therapy is known to decrease appetite and/or cause vomiting and diarrhea. Post-op antibiotic therapy may also normalize a temperature that would increase with dehiscence as well as decreasing the presence of organisms in effusion that would allow us to diagnose leaking.
In addition to contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance, unnecessary therapy ultimately, and somewhat counter-intuitively, only serves to delay therapy in patients that may have suffered dehiscence and worsen the patients prognosis. Instances where postoperative antibiotic therapy would be warranted are those where the wound is upgraded from clean-contaminated to contaminated or dirty or those with pre-existing peritonitis or effusion. In these instances, broad-spectrum therapy ideally based on culture and sensitivity should be provided.
Recovery Of Bone Infection In Dogs
The recovery process for osteomyelitis can be a long one. If the original injury was severe, your dog may not be able to put any weight on the affected limb. The bone will need to be stabilized while it heals, which means that any activity must be restricted and that general movement will be limited. You should create a quiet, secure space for your dog to rest in while the fracture heals and limit the number of distractions that may cause anxiety or discomfort during this time.
Antibiotics will likely be administered throughout the healing process. You will need to bring your dog to your veterinarian for follow up examinations at set intervals to check your dogs response to treatment and to monitor the healing process. X-rays and blood work may be repeated to ensure that the bone is stabilized and that the infection is resolving.
Who Is At Risk Of Septic Arthritis
Anyone can get septic arthritis but some people are more at risk. This includes people:
- with rheumatoid arthritis
- with a weakened immune system
- who have recently had joint surgery
- who have an artificial joint, such as a knee or hip replacement
- who inject drugs like heroin
- with gonorrhoea, which is a sexually transmitted infection
Page last reviewed: 07 January 2020 Next review due: 07 January 2023
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Sample Size Considerations Outcome Parameters And Statistical Analyses
The primary outcome for this study was the rates of remission of infection. Remission was defined as the complete absence of clinical, laboratory or radiological findings after a minimal follow-up of 2 months after treatment. Secondary endpoints were: remission in the subgroup of hand and wrist septic arthritis the occurrence of adverse events related to antibiotic therapy and the development of non-infectious sequelae of bacterial arthritis. Using a non-inferiority design, with an alpha level of 5%, a power of 80%, expected remission rates of 96% in both study arms, we calculated that we needed 48 patients in each group to establish a non-inferiority margin of 10%. We planned interim analyses beginning after enrolment of the first 40 cases. Our intention-to-treat population was composed of all randomised patients, while the per-protocol population included patients who completed the study without any major protocol deviation. Due to the predominance of hand arthritis cases, we performed a subgroup analysis for hand arthritis only, which included the fingers, hand and wrists. We compared treatment groups using the Pearson 2 or the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Due to the small number of failures, we elected not to perform multivariate analyses. We used STATA software and considered p values 0.05 as significant.
Dog Ringworm Treatment Home Remedy Should I Use All Natural Antibiotics For Dogs
Ringworm is a fungal infection that affects the skin of dogs. It can affect any area including the ear. Natural remedies can be used in the early stages of the infection. If the ringworm is not responding to treatment, then conventional antibiotics will need to be used.
When not treated properly, ringworm can spread to the whole body and cause discomfort. Ringworm can be treated at home using apple cider vinegar mixed with water 50/50 and sprayed on the infected areas.
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What If Your Pet Does Not Fall Under The Above Categories
Owners are sometimes surprised to learn that their pet will not receive antibiotics prior to routine surgery and also will not be sent home with oral antibiotics. When infections do develop in these cases, it may seem that the decision not to use antibiotics was to blame. However, there is overwhelming evidence that unnecessary antibiotic administration in these circumstances does not help prevent post-operative infections. Additionally, this routine use of antibiotics puts both you and your pet at risk for infections that are potentially resistant to all but the most potent antibiotics, contributing to a world-wide health crisis.
If your pet needs antibiotics that are prescribed, it is very important that you give all the medication to your pet as directed on the bottle skipping doses and stopping before all the medication has been given is as effective as not administering these drugs at all.
Can Dogs Get Allergic Reactions To Antibiotics
Yes, dogs can get allergic reactions to antibiotic treatments. This is why its important to consult your veterinarian before antibiotics are administered and to monitor your dog while he or she is on them.
The cause and type of allergic reaction depends on how your pups unique biology mixes with the type and dosage of the antibiotic taken. Many symptoms occur within the first 24 hours and can include skin irritation, rashes, itching, trouble breathing, coughing, nausea, swelling, appetite loss, anaphylactic shock, and more.
After taking antibiotics, keep a close eye on your dog. Take them to a veterinarian immediately if you notice symptoms like these.
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Strongest Natural Antibioticwhat Do Studies Say
One of the most believed strongest natural antibiotics for dogs that are safe to use for dogs is oregano oil.
The Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment found that oregano oil was inhibitory to the growth of all the battier under testvery low concentrations of the essential oil were sufficient to prevent microbial growth. Oregano oil can be taken internally, mixed with another oil like coconut.
What Is Septic Arthritis In Dogs
Septic arthritis in dogs is a specific type of joint disease, popularly known as toxic inflammation of the joints or infectious arthritis.
In a dog with osteoarthritic joints, the joint damage is of inflammatory nature. In a dog with infected joints, the joint damage is caused by infection followed by inflammatory changes, joint effusion, joint swelling, pain, and lameness.
While regular arthritis is usually associated with old age and has a gradual onset, septic arthritis can occur in any dog suddenly and with more severe clinical signs.
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Quick And Easy Ways To Prevent Nail Infections
Give your dog regular nail trims Its always a better idea to have a professional clip and file your pups nails, and your vet or groomer should be able to provide appointments! Never try to trim your dogs nails unless you have proper training, experience, and the essential tools .
Go on outdoor walks Pavement and other hard walking surfaces are some of the greatest natural nail filers out there. Regular activity is not only vital for a happy pup but crucial for optimal paw health.
Handle your dogs paws a lot This is the best way to check your pups nail health regularly and get them used to their paws being handled in future groomer and vet appointments.
Try to prevent too much licking and chewing This can be hard, especially during those hours of the day and night when youre not around to watch your pup. But the biggest key to preventing any type of infection, especially after trauma or injury, is making sure the area stays dry, healthy, and clean of bacteria.
Address any skin allergies as soon as you can The earlier you catch allergy-related issues causing contact dermatitis, the better chances it wont affect the nails.
What Kinds Of Infectious Agents Cause Septic Arthritis
Bacteria that can live and grow in the presence of oxygen , bacteria that can live and grow in the absence of oxygen , and fungal organisms can all cause septic arthritis.
If septic arthritis is suspected, your dogs blood will be taken to look for evidence infection and inflammation. Arthrocentesis will also be performed, and the fluid will be assessed for the presence of inflammatory cells, as well as cultured to determine what infectious agent is present.
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Garlic: Natural Antibiotic For Dogs
Garlic has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi according to the US National Library of Medicine. Despite its great medicinal properties, garlic can be a controversial natural remedy for dogs.
Garlic, shallots, chives, onions, and leeks are part of the same family of foods that contain a certain compound that can be toxic to dogs and cats in large amounts. When using garlic to kill bacteria and fight infections in dogs, only organic, fresh, raw garlic should be used in small amounts.
Why Do Nail Infections Commonly Occur In Dogs Paw Areas
Nail and nail bed infections are defined as any abnormality or disease that affects a dogs claw or the areas around it. Infections are common in paws because paws are in constant contact with everyday surfaces and germs. Canine nails are situated above the paw pads. They only touch the ground when your pup is on the move, but because your pup is probably walking around a lot, it leaves plenty of room for exposure.
Although nail infections in dogs have a variety of causes, they usually have an excellent treatment prognosis and take a short amount of time to heal. That said, any suspected nail infection should always be seen by a vet before it worsens or spreads.
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Antimicrobial Coverage For Severe Soft Tissue Infections In Dogs
Careful consideration should be made as to the antibiotic used in dogs with severe soft tissue infections with subcutaneous cellulitis, pyrexia, +/- signs of severe sepsis or septic shock. Some dogs have a history of injury but others may not. Approximately 60% of these dogs have strep or staph as the causative agent. Strep in particular is good at causing septic shock. Fluroquinolones are contraindicated in severe soft tissue/necrotizing infections because they have limited activity against strep and they can cause bacteriophage induced lysis of S. Canis which enhances its pathogenicity.
Antibiotic recommendations include:
- Good first line coverage includes the use of penicillin, cephalosporin or clindamycin.
- Expanded spectrum: above drugs + third generation cephalosporin, amikacin or gentamicin
Good coverage would be clindamycin and ceftriaxone, ampicillin and amikacin/gentamicin, or ampicillin/ceftriaxone. Ultimately the choice may change depending on what other underlying diseases are present.
Symptoms Of Septic Arthritis
- Joint swelling due to joint effusion and inflammation
- Joint hotness
- Severe lethargy
- Lack of appetite
Not all signs of septic arthritis need to be present. Some dogs may show only lameness and decreased range of motion, while others can show more severe clinical signs of septic arthritis like fever and depression.
In all septic arthritis cases, the clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific thus making the diagnosis challenging.
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What Is Doxycycline Used To Treat In Dogs
Doxycycline is used to treat bacterial and certain microbe infections. The antibiotic is not efficient against viral and fungal infections. Lets take a closer look at the different uses of Doxycycline in dogs.
Doxycycline for Tick-Borne Diseases in Dogs. There are many tick-borne diseases in dogs, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever , Lyme disease , and ehrlichiosis .
Doxycycline for Leptospirosis in Dogs.Leptospirosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Luckily, it is treatable when caught early. It can be treated with penicillins in the early stages, but once progressed, it requires tetracycline antibiotics.
Doxycycline for Heartworm Disease in Dogs. Doxycycline is an integral part of heartworm treatment. The antibiotic does not act directly against the Dirofilaria immitis parasite. Instead, it destroys the symbiotic Wolbachia bacteria, which supports the adult worms.
Doxycycline for Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs. Doxycycline is the antibiotic of choice for dogs with urinary tract infections . This is because most UTIs in dogs are caused by E. coli, and the bacteria is sensitive to Doxycycline.
Doxycycline for Dog Periodontal Disease. Dogs, especially certain breeds, are prone to gum and teeth infections. Doxycycline can be used in the treatment of such infections or preventively after dental procedures like extractions and scaling.
Urgent Advice: Ask For An Urgent Gp Appointment Or Get Help From Nhs 111 If:
- you have severe joint pain, usually in just 1 joint, that started suddenly
- you have swelling around a joint
- the skin around a joint has changed colour
- you feel generally unwell and have a high temperature or feel hot and shivery
Symptoms of septic arthritis usually develop quickly over a few days and need to be checked.
You can call 111 or get help from 111 online.
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Coconut Oil Antibiotic: Does It Work
Coconut oil is a topical and oral antimicrobial, which prevents the growth of bacteria, viruses, and fungi according to the Pet Dermatology Clinic. It also helps with healing wounds and can be taken internally to help with gastrointestinal problems.
Coconut oil is a safe ingredient in correct amounts, often used in shampoos and even dog treats. When using coconut oil topically, the Pet Dermatology clinic recommends using a pea-sized amount for every ten pounds of body weight, applying it to the skin all the way into the roots. Coconut oil is a great carrier oil for essential oils when used on the skin. Orally 1/4 teaspoon can be used for every 10 pounds of weight.
Coconut oil can also be used in the ear to help clean the ear to prevent infection and mites. Coconut oil can be rubbed or brushed on gums to help prevent periodontal disease.
Is Oregano Safe For Dogs
Oregano oil can be used as an antibiotic and antifungal for dogs to treat infections in small amounts. Oregano oil is very different from the oregano leaves and spice that are used for cooking. The oil is concentrated, only a drop or two should be used and diluted with a teaspoon of coconut oil.
It can be used topically or orally to treat the infection. Oregano, dried or fresh, can cause digestive upset in dogs. Oregano oil can be used to treat ear infections and mites.
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What Types Of Infections Do Antibiotics Treat How Do They Work
Antibiotics come in two forms: Bacteriostatic and bactericidal. Each are used depending on the type of condition present.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics work by preventing bacteria from growing and reproducing. This gives the hosts body enough time to fight off the infection using its natural immune system defenses.
Bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria outright.
Both types work to disinfect individuals from a host of bacterial infections, and they can come in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, and topical ointments.
In dogs, antibiotics can treat:
- Wound infections
- Soft tissue, bone, and dental infections
What’s The Treatment For Septic Arthritis
Septic arthritis treatments include using a combination of powerful antibiotics as well as draining the infected synovial fluid from the joint. It’s likely that antibiotics will be administered immediately to avoid the spread of the infection. Intravenous antibiotics are given, usually requiring admission to the hospital for initial treatment. The treatment, however, may be continued on an outpatient basis at home with the assistance of a home health nursing service.
Initially, empiric antibiotics are chosen to cover a wide range of infections. If the bacteria can be identified, antibiotics specific to that organism are used. It may take four to six weeks of treatment with antibiotics to ensure complete eradication of the infectious agents.
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What Causes Staph Infections In Dogs
Staph are called opportunistic pathogens, which means that they take advantage of and colonize any body part where local defense mechanisms and immunity are compromised.
Staph often causes secondary infections, which means that they infect body parts that have been debilitated by chronic disease, burns, or wounds.
Dogs who have skin allergies are prime candidates for staph infections because they often have weakened skin barriers that allows staph to gain a foothold and replicate.
Types Of Staph Infections In Dogs
The two main types of Staph seen in dogs are:
- Staph aureus
- Staph intermedius
Whatever type it is, staph is not picky where it lives or what it infects, and depending on the strain and the hosts immune system, staph varies in its level of severity or ability to cause disease. Many dogs will carry these strains without ever having any problems.
In dogs, the most common areas affected by staph include the skin, ears, bladder, prostate, lungs, bones, spine, joints, and mammary chains in nursing dogs. Staph can also infect the blood, the heart, and wounds or burns.
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