Stomatitis In Cats Faqs
Is stomatitis in cats curable?
Feline stomatitis is curable in the sense that surgical removal of teeth and affected bone can lead to complete resolution of the pain and inflammation in the mouth, but there are no other medications or treatments that offer a true cure for this disease.
How long can a cat live with stomatitis?
Cats affected by stomatitis can live with the disease for many years, but their quality of life can be severely affected. The relentless pain caused by stomatitis can cause a change in everything from your cats demeanor to an unwillingness to eat leading to drastic weight loss. Cats given the proper care for stomatitis through partial to full-mouth tooth extractions live the happier, healthier, pain-free lives they deserve.
What can I do if my cat has stomatitis?
If your cat has been diagnosed with stomatitis, work with your veterinarian to develop a plan for when and how your cat can receive the necessary tooth extractions. As in humans, extensive dental surgery in pets can be expensive, so make sure your plan includes an estimate of costs so that you are prepared to budget accordingly.
Why do cats get stomatitis?
Unfortunately, we do not know why cats get stomatitis. There is no current evidence that supports a specific cause. We only know that it is an abnormal response of the immune system.
Is stomatitis contagious in cats?
No. Stomatitis is an abnormal over-response of the individual cats immune system and is, therefore, not contagious.
Will I Need Antibiotics After Oral Surgery
Most people dont need antibiotics after oral surgery. There are some cases when your dentist may recommend themfor example, if you have some heart conditions or cirrhosis of the liver.
A dentist may also prescribe antibiotics for individuals with a history of infective endocarditis or a weakened immune system.
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Preventing Painful Dental Disease
How much better is it to prevent these painful infections in our pets if we can? While crown fractures sometimes are unavoidable, they often result from pets being given inappropriate chew toys or bones that are too hard for teeth. Periodontal disease is most often totally preventable with daily, at-home dental care and regular dental cleanings under anesthesia by your veterinarian.
Sadly, pets with abscessed teeth often go undiagnosed and suffer in silence. Our dogs and cats manifest pain so differently than humans. Even our domesticated pets have strong instincts still intact. To show pain is to show weakness to show weakness is to be more susceptible as prey. While our dogs and cats may not have any natural predators in their lives, it still goes against their predator-prey instincts to show that they hurt. Even more profound is the fact that most pets that are dealing with a tooth abscess still quite often have a normal appetite. Their survival instinct to eat is so strong they simply will not give it up.
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How Is Stomatitis In Cats Diagnosed
There’s no specific test for feline stomatitis. The diagnosis of stomatitis in cats is based on a cat’s health history and a physical examination. Your vet may recommend additional tests, such as tests for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, routine bloodwork and a urinalysis. These tests can rule out other conditions that cause inflammation in the mouth, including tooth resorptive lesions, liver disease, kidney disease and cancer. Dental X-rays and a complete oral examination are also usually recommended. Depending on what your vet finds during the oral exam, they may suggest a biopsy.
Treatment Of Mouth Inflammation And Ulcers In Cats
Treatment of mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats initially begins with pain control and anti-inflammatory medication. Feline stomatitis is an overreaction of the immune system, so your veterinarian may prescribe a steroid or immunosuppressant drug to suppress the immune system, and suppress the disease. Medicated mouth washes and oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. Although effective, treating feline stomatitis with therapeutic drugs is only temporary, therefore, many veterinarians suggest total dental extractions. Sometimes all teeth are removed while, in other cases, the incisors and canines may be left.
Plaque is the known trigger of feline stomatitis. Plaque is a bacteria that only remains in the mouth when it adheres to the teeth. Rigorous dental care at home can help keep the disease at bay.
For many, dental extraction is the only potential cure of feline stomatitis. Sometimes, all premolars and molars are removed. In more severe cases, all teeth are taken out. Unfortunately, a total dental extraction is costly, drastic and in the end, may not cure your cats stomatitis.
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How Can Calicivirus Infections Be Prevented
Since calicivirus is a highly infectious disease and apparently healthy cats can be carriers of the disease, it can be difficult to prevent your cat from exposure to the virus. Boarding facilities, humane societies, animal shelters, and cat shows are all places where susceptible cats can be readily exposed to calicivirus.
Preventing direct contact between your cat and other cats will greatly minimize the chance that your cat will pick up an infection. In addition, following good sanitation and hygiene practices, such as washing your hands thoroughly before and after petting another cat, will reduce the likelihood that you will spread the disease to your cat.
Susceptible cats can get an infection by direct contact with another infected cat or by environmental exposure to objects such as brushes, food bowls, litter boxes, cat toys, or blankets that have been contaminated with infectious secretions. Objects that have been contaminated with calicivirus can be disinfected by soaking for at least 10-15 minutes in a solution of bleach and water .
The standard core vaccines that are given to cats include immunization against calicivirus and will help reduce the severity of disease and shorten the length of the illness if your cat is exposed. Kittens require several boosters of this vaccine between the ages of 8 and 16 weeks, and at least one other booster a year later. After this initial series, the vaccine will also need to be boostered on a regular basis every 1-3 years.
Diagnosis Of Mouth Inflammation And Ulcers In Cats
Diagnosis of mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats begins with an examination of your cats medical history, including dental records and procedures to rule out standard conditions of the teeth. A physical examination of the mouth will be completed in order to evaluate the level of ulceration. Sedation or a general anaesthetic may be needed to allow the veterinarian to properly examine the felines mouth. A visual identification of mucosal inflammation and ulcers will give the veterinarian a diagnosis, but to determine the cause, further testing will be made including:
- Systemic disease evaluation
- Virus isolation test
- Retroviral test
- Histopathological evaluation
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How Is A Tooth Root Abscess Diagnosed
In some cases, such as when there is an obvious slab fracture or damage to a tooth that is accompanied by the presence of a discharge, the diagnosis of a tooth root abscess is simple and straightforward. However, intraoral dental radiographs are required to definitively diagnose a tooth root abscess. Your veterinarian may refer you to a veterinary dental specialist who can confirm the tooth root infection and to determine if other teeth are involved.
Treating A Tooth Abscess In A Dog Or Cat
It can mean many different things when we say a dog or a cat has a tooth abscess. Oxford defines an abscess as a swollen area in a body tissue containing pus. While an abscess always results from a bacterial infection, not all infections result in an abscess. We have to ask what part of the tooth or the tissues surrounding the tooth are infected and has it truly resulted in swelling and an accumulation of pus.
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What Causes Eye Infections In Cats
If your kitty is suffering from an uncomfortable eye infection the cause could either be an infectious or a non-infectious underlying condition.
Infectious Conditions that May Cause Eye Infections
- Some of the most common infectious conditions that can lead to eye infections in cats are Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis and Feline Calicivirus. Both of these viruses are highly contagious among cats and are known to cause feline upper respiratory disease which can lead to symptoms such as eye infections.
Non-Infectious Conditions that May Cause Eye Infections:
- Viruses aren’t the only cause of eye infections in cats. If your cat’s eyes are sore and irritated it could be due to allergies, a foreign body in the eye, a hereditary eye condition, trauma, tumors, or even an autoimmune disease.
Are There Any Side Effects
Yes, as with any medication there is potential for side effects. Antibiotics not only target harmful bacteria but also the good bacteria found in the stomach. Side effects may vary depending on the antibiotics used.
Common side effects of antibiotics may include:
- Allergic reaction including swelling, difficulty breathing, itching and scratching, rashes
- Toxicity includes damage to the liver, kidneys, optic nerves , bone marrow
- Secondary infection
- Abnormal growth or development of unborn kittens
A useful way to help common side effects is to give your cat some yoghurt or probiotics to replace the helpful bacteria killed by the medication or administer with food if it is safe to do so .
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How Long Does A Typical Calicivirus Infection Last
Once a cat is exposed to calicivirus, it will go through an incubation period of 2-6 days before developing clinical signs which typically last for 14-21 days. During this entire time, the cat will potentially be infectious to other cats. At a minimum, infected cats will shed virus in their bodily secretions for 2-3 weeks.
Following apparent recovery from the disease, as many as half of all infected cats may develop a carrier state in which they will continue to shed the virus. In some of these cats the carrier state may only last for a few months, but in a small percentage of cats the carrier state may persist for life. Carrier cats may or may not show any signs of infection when they are actively shedding calicivirus and serve as an important source of infection to susceptible cats. Female cats that are carriers of this virus can pass the infection on to their newborn kittens.
Is Neosporin Safe For Cats
Human medications are often toxic or otherwise dangerous for animals, especially cats. Their compact size means that even the tiniest amounts of a toxic substance could put your cat’s life at risk.
Neosporin is a staple found in many people’s first aid kits. This topical antibiotic ointment can work very well on humans but it not recommended for cats. Cases have been reported of cats having life-threatening anaphylactic reactions to some of the antibiotic ingredients in Neosporin’s ophthalmic preparations which include neomycin and polymyxin B.
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How Is Feline Stomatitis Diagnosed
Examining the mouth of a cat with stomatitis can be difficult because the cat is reluctant to open his or her mouth. Your veterinarian may recommend sedation to facilitate a more complete examination.
Results of basic blood tests, such as a chemistry panel and complete blood cell count , tend to be unremarkable in cats with stomatitis. However, your veterinarian may recommend specific testing for underlying diseases such as FeLV, FIV, and bartonellosis.
Sometimes, a small sample of tissue from the mouth is submitted to a laboratory for biopsy. However, the diagnosis is commonly based on clinical signs and physical examination findings. A dental examination and dental X-rays can help your veterinarian determine the extent of periodontal disease.
Self Care Advice For A Dental Abscess
Food and Drink
You can reduce the pressure and pain of a dental abscess by avoiding food and drink that is too hot or too cold. We also recommend that you consume soft foods.
You should try eating on the side of your mouth not affected by the abscess.
Use of Analgesia
We would encourage the use of over the counter pain management medications but these should not be used to delay getting treatment. It is essential that you see a dentist as soon as possible. If you are having problems finding an emergency dentist then you can try the NHS 111 service.
When using any form of painkiller it is important not to exceed the recommended dosage. Please also bear in mind that many over the counter preparations contain the same active ingredients so it is better not to use combinations of painkillers without first checking with a healthcare professional.
You should use a soft toothbrush and avoid flossing the affected tooth.
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How To Use Antibiotic For Cat Abscess
- Administering the medication: You will need to give your cat a dose of antibiotics with food or water. The veterinarian will tell you how much medication to give and at what intervals.
- Using the medication: Keep all medications out of reach of children and pets, as they can be toxic if ingested.
- Storing the medication: Store all medications in their original packaging away from direct sunlight and heat sources, like radiators or heating vents.
- Disposing of the medication: Once your cat has finished taking its antibiotics, dispose of them properly by following the instructions in this article on how to safely dispose of prescription drugs for cats.
What Is A Slab Fracture
A slab fracture develops when a tooth breaks in such a way as to result in a loss of a slab of tooth structure. It occurs when the cat bites down on a hard object at just the right angle and with just the right force to break off a flake or slab of the tooth. This exposes the underlying sensitive dentin and sometimes even deeper, exposing the pulp cavity of the tooth where the nerve resides. The slab that breaks off may be a small chip or a large piece of the tooth.
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Feline Indolent Ulcers And Their Significance
Feline indolent ulcers, also referred to as rodent ulcers or eosinophilic ulcers, are a cutaneous reaction pattern in cats that affect the muco-cutaneous junction of the oral cavity. Most indolent ulcers occur on the upper lip near the philtrum or adjacent to the upper canine teeth. These lesions may be presented with bilateral symmetry, or may be asymmetrical, or unilateral. Pruritus and pain are rare. Submandibular lymph node enlargement may be present. Age of onset is variable.
Clinically, lesions associated with eosinophilic lip ulcers exhibit superficial crusting, erythema, and depressed ulcers at the lip margin . These lesions may progress slowly or quite rapidly and are often noted incidentally by the pet owner as the affected cat does not usually exhibit discomfort. Affected cats may be presented for routine evaluation, or for other dermatological concerns, when the indolent ulcer is first noticed. With increasing severity, these lesions enlarge and the ulcer progresses. Despite progression, the lesions typically remain well circumscribed, alongside a concave ulcerated center of granulation tissue that may include areas of yellow to white necrotic tissue. Due to the presence of raised borders around the ulcer and severe localized inflammation, these lesions may appear as firm, proliferative ulcerated masses. In some cases, purulent exudate may be expressed from these lesions .
Indolent ulcer with bacterial infection before treatment.
Precaution: Probiotics And Lactic Acid Bacteria
Antibiotics are serious drugs so when the dentist or the doctor prescribe them, it is not recommended to stop the round even if symptoms disappear. In addition, these type of medication are well known for causing changes within the intestinal flora. Clinicians often suggest to add probiotics while the antibiotic therapy and lactic acid bacteria after it. The scope is to restore the correct intestinal ecosystem.
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Severe Reactions Of Antibiotics In Cats
Your cat may have a more severe reaction to antibiotics in rare cases. If theyre allergic to the medication, have an underlying condition, or if it interacts poorly with another medication, reactions may occur. Lastly, sensitive immune systems can react badly to an antibiotic. Severe side effects of antibiotics include:
- Excessive itching or swelling
- Repeated bouts of diarrhea and/or vomiting
- Difficulty or inability to breathe
Effects Of Antibiotic For Cat Abscess
The use of antibiotics for cat abscess is important because it can help to prevent infections from spreading. However, it is important to note that antibiotics do not treat the underlying cause of an abscess and they are often used as a preventative measure. It is also important to note that antibiotics can have some side effects, so it is important that you consult with your veterinarian before starting your cat on this treatment plan.
Which Drugs Or Supplements Interact With Amoxicillin
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctorâs recommendation.
Amoxicillin is rarely associated with important drug interactions.
Severe Interactions of Amoxicillin include:
How Long Does It Take For Amoxicillin To Work For A Tooth Infection
If you take the amoxicillin antibiotic for tooth infection, you may begin to feel better in just one to two days. However, that doesnât mean that your infection is cured.
You must make sure to take your antibiotics for as many days as specified in your prescription, and even though you may feel better in a couple of days, your infection probably wonât be gone until a week to 10 days have passed.
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