Monday, January 30, 2023

What Is Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Global Antibiotic Research And Development Partnership

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

A joint initiative of WHO and Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative , GARDP encourages research and development through public-private partnerships. By 2023, the partnership aims to develop and deliver up to four new treatments, through improvement of existing antibiotics and acceleration of the entry of new antibiotic drugs.

Who Are The Narms Partners

The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System is a U. S. public health surveillance system that tracks antimicrobial resistance in foodborne and other enteric bacteria. NARMS works closely with a number of partners who play complementary roles in antibiotic resistance to address this important issue.

The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System is a U. S. public health surveillance system that tracks antimicrobial resistance in foodborne and other enteric bacteria. NARMS works closely with a number of partners who play complementary roles in antibiotic resistance to address this important issue.

Who is involved in NARMS? Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Food and Drug Administration United States Department of Agriculture FDA and USDA National Institutes of Health
Health departments in 50 states

Health departments in 15 states

Institutions of higher education in 7 states

Food Safety and Inspection Service

Agricultural Research Service

Animal Plant Health Inspection Service

Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network

USDA National Animal Health Laboratory Network

Veterinary Diagnostic Labs in 38 States

National Center for Biotechnology Information
Where do the samples that are tested come from? Ill persons

Retail meats from grocery stores

Chicken

What bacteria does NARMS test for resistance? Salmonella

Lists Of Common Bacteria With High Antibiotic Resistance

Final selection of an antibiotic treatment regimen for drug-resistant bacteria should always be tailored for a patient according to the antimicrobial susceptibility test result and the expertise of a medical professional. Treatment selection depends upon:

  • the type and severity of the infection
  • local drug susceptibility patterns

Infections can range from skin and soft tissue infections , to urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis , endocarditis , pneumonia infections, and meningitis .

Incision/drainage of an abscess or debridement may be required.

MRSA has become resistant to common antibiotics such as beta-lactams, including methicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and cephalosporins.

MRSA is spread by contact. MRSA usually affects the skin, such as surgical sites. MRSA can also cause lung or blood infections.

Infection outbreaks can be acquired in the community or in healthcare settings such as nursing homes, dialysis centers, or hospitals .

The CDC lists MRSA as a “serious” threat.

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How Do Bacteria Become Resistant

Antibiotic medicines kill bacteria. When antibiotics are not used correctly, they may not kill all of the bacteria. The bacteria that an antibiotic does not kill can grow stronger. The antibiotic may not be able to kill the new bacteria. Bacteria can become resistant when the wrong type, wrong dose, or wrong treatment length of antibiotic is used. They can also become resistant to more than one type of antibiotic. This has made it harder to cure infections that used to be easily treated.

What Causes Antibiotic Resistance

What is antibiotic resistance ?

These factors often contribute to antibiotic resistance:

  • Overuse of antibiotics: Taking antibiotics when theyre not needed or helpful contributes to antibiotic resistance. For instance, most cases of pharyngitis are viral. Antibiotics wont help. Even bacterial ear infections often improve without antibiotics.
  • Misuse of antibiotics: Bacteria take advantage of any opportunity to multiply. If you forget to take a medicine for a day , stop treatment too soon, or use incorrect antibiotics , bacteria start reproducing. As they multiply, they can change . Mutated bacteria become increasingly more resistant to a medicine.
  • Agricultural use: Bacteria in animals can also become antibiotic resistant. An estimated 80% of antibiotic use in the United States is for livestock.
  • Spontaneous resistance: Sometimes, the genetic makeup of a bacterium changes or mutates on its own. The antibiotic doesnt recognize this newly changed bacterium and cant target it the way it should. Or the change helps the bacteria fight off the medicines effects.
  • Transmitted resistance: You can pass a contagious drug-resistant bacterial infection to someone else. That person now has an infection that wont respond to an antibiotic. Again, we can usually find a treatment, but time has passed and the now resistant bacteria may be harder to treat.

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Spread Of Germs & Resistance Mechanisms

To survive, germs develop defense strategies against antibiotics called resistance mechanisms. DNA tells the germ how to make specific proteins, which determine the germs resistance mechanisms. Bacteria and fungi can carry genes for many types of resistance.

When already hard-to-treat germs have the right combination of resistance mechanisms, it can make all antibiotics ineffective, resulting in untreatable infections. Alarmingly, antibiotic-resistant germs can share their resistance mechanisms with other germs that have not been exposed to antibiotics.

This table gives a few examples of defense strategies used to resist the effects of antibiotics.

How Can I Help Prevent Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance cant be totally stopped, but it can be slowed down by sensibly using antibiotics. You can help by:

  • not taking antibiotics for a cold or the flu, including cough and sore throat viruses cause most colds, and antibiotics dont work against viruses
  • telling your doctor you only want antibiotics when necessary such as for serious bacterial infections such as pneumonia
  • taking your antibiotic as prescribed, and completing the full course
  • never saving antibiotics for the next time youre sick
  • never taking antibiotics prescribed for someone else
  • having good hygiene practices to avoid spreading infections

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Recently Approved Antibiotics For Resistant Infections

Antibiotic resistance is an epidemic that everyone can help to prevent: health care providers, patients and caregivers. Education, judicious use and prescribing of antibacterials, and 100% patient adherence to medication regimens are key in helping to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance.

For more information see: CDC: Be Antibiotics Aware

Need For Coordinated Action

What causes antibiotic resistance? – Kevin Wu

AMR is a complex problem that requires a united multisectoral approach. The One Health approach brings together multiple sectors and stakeholders engaged in human, terrestrial and aquatic animal and plant health, food and feed production and the environment to communicate and work together in the design and implementation of programmes, policies, legislation and research to attain better public health outcomes.

Greater innovation and investment is required in operational research, and in research and development of new antimicrobial medicines, vaccines, and diagnostic tools especially those targeting the critical gram-negative bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii. The launch of the Antimicrobial Resistance Multi Partner Trust Fund , the Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership , AMR Action Fund and other funds and initiatives could fill a major funding gap. Various governments are piloting reimbursement models including Sweden, Germany, the USA and the United Kingdom. More initiatives are needed to find lasting solutions.

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Interagency Coordination Group On Antimicrobial Resistance

The United Nations Secretary-General has established IACG to improve coordination between international organizations and to ensure effective global action against this threat to health security. The IACG is co-chaired by the UN Deputy Secretary-General and the Director General of WHO and comprises high level representatives of relevant UN agencies, other international organizations, and individual experts across different sectors.

Antibiotic Resistance Questions And Answers

Antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest public health challenges of our timefew treatment options exist for people infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Visit CDCs Antibiotic Resistance website for more information, including fact sheets describing some of these answers and how CDC is taking a One Health approach to combat this threat.

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The Global Antimicrobial Resistance And Use Surveillance System

WHO launched the Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System in 2015 to continue filling knowledge gaps and to inform strategies at all levels. GLASS has been conceived to progressively incorporate data from surveillance of AMR in humans, surveillance of the use of antimicrobial medicines, AMR in the food chain and in the environment. GLASS provides a standardized approach to the collection, analysis, interpretation and sharing of data by countries, territories and areas, and monitors the status of existing and new national surveillance systems, with emphasis on representativeness and quality of data collection. Some WHO regions have established surveillance networks that provide technical support to countries and facilitate enrollment into GLASS.

Who Is Most At Risk

Antibiotic Resistance in Acne Treatment

In general, certain groups of people have an increased risk for getting infections. This means they are also at an increased risk of antibiotic resistance.

At risk groups include:

  • infants, especially premature babies, as they may not have strong immune systems
  • seniors, particularly those living in long-term care facilities or seniors’ residences. This is because they:
  • may be exposed to more infections than the average person,
  • are in close contact with many others, and
  • may have a weakened immune system due to illness or extended antibiotic use.
  • people who are homeless or living in crowded or unhygienic conditions where it is easy to contract infections, and
  • people with weakened immune systems due to illness or injury.
  • At risk groups based on behaviours and settings include:

    • people in healthcare facilities and day care centres, or other settings where infections can easily spread, especially if infection prevention and control measures are not followed,
    • people who have occupations that put them at a greater risk for exposure to bacteria or infectious diseases such as:
    • physicians,
    • slaughter house and meat processing plants workers, and
    • farmers.

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    World Antimicrobial Awareness Week

    Held annually since 2015, WAAW is a global campaign that aims to increase awareness of antimicrobial resistance worldwide and to encourage best practices among the general public, health workers and policy makers to avoid the further emergence and spread of drug-resistant infections. Antimicrobials are critical tools in helping to fight diseases in humans, animals and plants. They include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiprotozoa. WAAW takes place every year from 18 to 24 November. The slogan has previously been, Antibiotics: Handle with Care but changed to Antimicrobials: Handle with Care in 2020 to reflect the broadening scope of drug resistant infections.

    How Do Bacteria Become Resistant To Antibiotics

    Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics by adapting their structure or function in some way as a defense mechanism. The antibiotic may have worked effectively before the resistance occurred however, the change helps the bacteria to fend off the killing activity of the antibiotic.

    This adaptation can happen in several ways. Bacteria can:

    • neutralize the antibiotic before it has a “killing” effect
    • pump out the antibiotic from cells
    • change the site where the antibiotic normally works

    The resistant bacteria that survive are able to multiply, spread and cause further infections in the individual, family, community, or health care setting. In turn, these infections are more resistant to another round of the same or similar antibiotic.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has posted a listing of the top 18 drug-resistant threats to the United States. The hazard levels are grouped as urgent, serious, and concerning. Urgents threats to human health include: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter, Clostridium difficile, Candida auris, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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    What Bacteria Are Tested In Narms

    NARMS monitors antibiotic resistance among the following four major foodborne bacteria: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus. This section describes these bacteria and the importance of monitoring their resistance to antibiotics. CDC also conducts surveillance of resistance among Vibrio species other than V. cholera, and the non-foodborne enteric organisms Shigella, and typhoidal Salmonella from humans. More information on these organisms can be found on the CDC website.

    What Accelerates The Emergence And Spread Of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Research Shorts: Antibiotic resistant bacteria

    AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. Antimicrobial resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment . They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin. The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene for both humans and animals poor infection and disease prevention and control in health-care facilities and farms poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics lack of awareness and knowledge and lack of enforcement of legislation.

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    Show/hide Words To Know

    Gene: a region of DNA that instructs the cell on how to build protein. As a human, you usually get a set of instructions from your mom and another set from your dad… more

    Horizontal gene transfer: the process by which bacteria exchange genes with one another without multiplying….more

    Mutation: a change in the lineup of DNA instructions. Sometimes, if the DNA changes, then the instructions for what to build will change, or mutate.

    Why Is Resistance Monitoring Important

    • Document resistance levels in different reservoirs
    • Describe the spread of resistant bacterial strains and resistance genes
    • Identify temporal and spatial trends in resistance
    • Generate hypotheses about sources and reservoirs of resistant bacteria
    • Understand the association between use practices and resistance
    • Identify risk factors and clinical outcomes of infections caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria
    • Provide data for education on current and emerging hazards
    • Guide evidence-based policies and guidelines to control antimicrobial use in hospitals, communities, agriculture, aquaculture, and veterinary medicine
    • Pre-approval Support risk analysis of foodborne antimicrobial resistance hazards
    • Post-approval Identify interventions to contain resistance and evaluate their effectiveness

    Antimicrobial drugs have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine for more than 60 years, with tremendous benefits to both human and animal health. The development of resistance to these medicines poses a serious public health threat. Antimicrobial drug use creates selective evolutionary pressure that enables antimicrobial resistant bacteria to increase in numbers and thus increases the opportunity for individuals to become infected by resistant bacteria. When antimicrobial drugs are used in food-producing animals, they can enrich the resistant strains that reach humans via the food supply.

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    Drug Resistance In Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Antibiotic resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are threatening progress in containing the global tuberculosis epidemic. WHO estimates that, in 2018, there were about half a million new cases of rifampicin-resistant TB identified globally, of which the vast majority have multi-drug resistant TB , a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to the two most powerful anti-TB drugs. Only one-third of the approximately half a million people who developed MDR/RR-TB in 2018 were detected and reported. MDR-TB requires treatment courses that are longer, less effective and far more expensive than those for non-resistant TB. Less than 60% of those treated for MDR/RR-TB are successfully cured.

    In 2018, an estimated 3.4% of new TB cases and 18% of previously treated cases had MDR-TB/ RR-TB and the emergence of resistance to new last resort TB drugs to treat drug resistant TB poses a major threat.

    Tripartite Joint Secretariat On Antimicrobial Resistance

    The Dangers and Ineffectiveness of Antibiotics for Acne ...

    The political declaration at the UN High Level Meeting on AMR, committed to by Heads of State at the United Nations General Assembly in New York in September 2016, confirmed a strong focus on a broad, coordinated approach that engages all including the human, animal, plant and environmental health sectors. WHO is working closely with FAO and OIE in a One Health approach to promote best practices to reduce the levels of AMR and slow its development.

    The Interagency Coordination Group on AMR was convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations after the UN High-Level Meeting on Antimicrobial Resistance in 2016. The IACG brought together partners across the UN, international organizations and individuals with expertise across human, animal and plant health, as well as the food, animal feed, trade, development and environment sectors, to formulate a plan for the fight against antimicrobial resistance. The Interagency Coordination Group on AMR submitted its report No time to wait: Securing the future from drug-resistant infections to the UN Secretary-General in April 2019. Its recommendations are now being implemented.

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    Drug Resistance In Malaria Parasites

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites poses one of the greatest threats to malaria control and results in increased malaria morbidity and mortality. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and are used by most malaria endemic countries. ACTs are a combination of an artemisinin component and a partner drug. In the WHO Western Pacific Region and in the WHO South-East Asia Region, partial resistance to artemisinin and resistance to a number of the ACT partner drugs has been confirmed in Cambodia, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam through studies conducted between 2001 and 2019. This makes selecting the right treatment more challenging and requires close monitoring.

    In the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine led to artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine failures in some countries, necessitating a change to another ACT.

    In Africa, evidence has recently been published showing emergence of mutations linked to partial artemisinin resistance in Rwanda. So far, ACTs that have been tested remain highly efficacious. However, further spread of resistance to artemisinin and ACT partner drugs could pose a major public health challenge and jeopardize important gains in malaria control.

    What Is Antimicrobial Resistance

    Antimicrobial Resistance occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.

    As a result of drug resistance, antibiotics and other antimicrobial medicines become ineffective and infections become increasingly difficult or impossible to treat.

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