Who Can Have The Flu Vaccine
The flu vaccine is given free on the NHS to people who:
- are 50 and over
- have certain health conditions
- are pregnant
- are in long-stay residential care
- receive a carer’s allowance, or are the main carer for an older or disabled person who may be at risk if you get sick
- live with someone who is more likely to get infections
- frontline health or social care workers
When Should Antiviral Drugs Be Taken For Treatment
Studies show that flu antiviral drugs work best for treatment when they are started within two days of getting sick. However, starting them later can still be beneficial, especially if the sick person is at higher risk of serious flu complications or is in the hospital with more severe illness. Follow instructions for taking these drugs.
What About Other Medications
This completely depends on the type of medication. With most drugs, you are fine to get your flu shot. However, certain drugs can interact with the vaccine medications, including certain steroids and immune-suppressing drugs. Your doctor can give you advice based on the specific drugs youre on. They can also help you weigh the pros and cons of getting the flu shot with a pre-existing condition.
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How Effective Is The Flu Vaccine
The flu vaccine gives the best protection against flu.
Flu vaccines help protect against the main types of flu viruses, although there’s still a chance you might get flu.
If you do get flu after vaccination, it’s likely to be milder and not last as long.
Having the flu vaccine will also reduce the chance of you spreading flu to other people who may be more at risk of serious problems from flu.
It can take 10 to 14 days for the flu vaccine to work.
Is It True That Some Vaccines Contain Antibiotics
Confusingly, some vaccines contain tiny amounts of antibiotics but those antibiotics arent there to kill germs in your body. In fact, theyre not even the types of antibiotics that are used to treat infections in humans.
Instead, antibiotics are sometimes added to vaccines to keep bacteria from living in the vaccine liquid during the manufacturing process. This is the same approach used by food packagers to keep germs out of packaged foods. In either case, bacteria could cause big problems if they snuck into the products during manufacturing. The addition of small amounts of antibiotics to the products keeps this from happening.
The tiny amounts of antibiotics used in vaccines are safe for humans. But they wont kill many bacteria in your body: The amount is way too small to have any effect on you, or on any bacteria trying to make you sick.
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When Not To Get Your Flu Shot
Every year, up to 49,000 Americans die from the flu or from complications with the illnessand every year, flu vaccination reduces the risk by between 40% and 60%, according to the American Lung Association.
That’s why the flu shot is so important. However, there are certain times when a flu shot may be more dangerous to you than the illness itself.
While most doctors urge patients to get their flu shots each yearyou’ll want to get yours before the end of October it takes two weeks to kick ineven they agree that there are certain situations when you should avoid or postpone your shot. Find out if you’re safe to get stuck this year or if you should sit this one out. And to ensure your house is safe for you and the entire family, don’t miss this essential list of 100 Ways Your Home Could be Making You Sick.
Rare Side Effects Of The Influenza Vaccine
There is a very small risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic, medical surgery, or pharmacy for at least 15 minutes following vaccination in case further treatment is required.
Apart from anaphylaxis, other extremely rare side effects include in children.
A small increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was seen in the US in 1976, but since that time, surveillance has shown that it is limited to one case for every million doses of the flu vaccine, if at all.
If any other reactions are severe and persistent, or if you are worried, contact your doctor for further information.
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Why Do I Need To Get Vaccinated Every Year
You need to get the flu vaccine every year because each year the flu vaccine is made to match the different strains of flu virus likely to be in New Zealand. Occasionally the vaccine strains are the same for more than one year, but it is still recommended that you have the vaccine each year, as the protection provided by the vaccine lessens over time. Read more about vaccination against influenza.
Can Children Take Antiviral Drugs
Yes, though this varies by medication. Oseltamivir is recommended by CDC for treatment of flu in children beginning from birth and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends oseltamivir for treatment of flu in children 2 weeks old or older. Zanamivir is approved for early treatment of flu in people 7 years and older, though it is not recommended for use in children with underlying respiratory disease, including asthma and other chronic lung diseases. Peramivir is recommended for early treatment in people 2 years and older. Baloxavir is approved for early treatment of flu in people 12 years and older.
If your childs health care provider prescribes oseltamivir capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow capsules, the prescribed capsules may be opened, mixed with a thick sweetened liquid, and given that way. Learn more here.
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Vaccines Do Not Make A Mild Illness Worse
Vaccines only have a tiny fraction of the bacteria and viruses that children encounter naturally. Because of this, the immune system can handle getting vaccines and fighting minor illnesses at the same time.
Vaccines do not make symptoms of illness worse. Like any medication, vaccines may cause mild side effects, like a low fever or soreness or swelling where the shot was given. To help with discomfort from these side effects, put a cool, wet washcloth on the sore area or ask your childs doctor about using pain- or fever-reducing medicine. These side effects are very minor and soon go away.
Should I Delay My Covid
There is no need to delay getting vaccinated against COVID-19 until after surgery. Fever is a potential side effect of COVID-19 vaccines, and having a fever after surgery raises concerns about a possible surgical wound infection. For that reason, it is a good idea to allow at least one week between getting vaccinated and having surgery.
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Antibiotics Vaccines And Covid
Lets say its time for your vaccine, but youre already on antibiotics for a different infection. Its reasonable to wonder whether your immune system is up to the challenge of building vaccine-related immune defenses while youre fighting an infection with antibiotics. But dont worry: Youve got this.
How Effective Is The Nhs Flu Immunisation Programme
The flu vaccine works better in some years than others . In children aged 2-17, the flu vaccine prevented 66% of flu cases in 2016-17, 27% of flu cases in 2017-18, 49% of flu cases in 2018-19 and 45% of flu cases in 2019-20 .
The aim is to protect children and also people around them, particularly those at risk of complications of flu. If children get flu they can remain infectious for longer than adults , and they are also more likely to pass on the infection. There is good evidence to show that vaccinating children against flu is a good way to reduce flu-related illness, GP visits, hospital admissions and deaths for the whole community.
Overall, since the programme began, the impact of the nasal flu vaccine has been greatest in pilot areas of the UK where children in all primary school years have been offered vaccination. This includes the whole of Scotland and Northern Ireland. In 2015 Public Health England published a study evaluating the impact of these flu vaccination pilot programmes in 2014-15 . The study showed that the programme in the pilot areas had a significant impact on flu in children and the community as a whole.
As well as offering the nasal flu vaccine to all primary school children, Scotland and Northern Ireland had higher rates of vaccine uptake than England.
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Inflammation Rises As Gut Bacteria Go Down
The researchers measured immune response to the flu shot and diversity and abundance of gut microbes by analyzing stool and blood serum samples taken at various points during a one-year follow-up period.
They found that people taking the antibiotics experienced a 10,000-fold drop in their gut bacteria population a loss that lasted up to a year after they took the drugs. These participants also displayed signs of systemic inflammation that mirrored a pro-inflammatory state seen among people age 65 and older who have gotten the flu shot.
Scientists speculate that the inflammation may be connected to how the microbiome regulates bile acid.
Connection Between Vaccine Response And Preexisting Immunity
The response to the flu vaccine differed between the two groups. All of the first 22 volunteers from 201415 turned out to have high levels of flu antibodies to begin with. So, whether they took antibiotics or not, they had a preexisting immunity to that seasons flu virus strain.
In the 201516 group, however, all selected participants had low levels of flu antibodies at the start and low immunity. None had received a flu vaccination in the three years prior. After getting the flu shot, those who also took the antibiotics had a significant drop in antibodies that would protect them from the H1N1 virus.
Study authors suggest that if these individuals were exposed to this H1N1 virus after vaccination, they would most likely be less protected against getting the flu than people who had not received antibiotics.
Interestingly, the effect on the vaccine response was seen only in people with low levels of preexisting immunity to this vaccine, says Embry. Its important to note that the antibiotic treatment did not appear to significantly impact the immune responses in those who had higher levels of preexisting immunity to influenza.
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Who Should Not Have The Flu Vaccine
Most adults can have the flu vaccine, but you should avoid it if you have had a serious allergic reaction to a flu vaccine in the past.
You may be at risk of an allergic reaction to the flu vaccine injection if you have an egg allergy. This is because some flu vaccines are made using eggs.
Ask a GP or pharmacist for a low-egg or egg-free vaccine.
If you’re ill with a high temperature, it’s best to wait until you’re better before having the flu vaccine.
Children Between Six Months And Eight Years Old Need Something Else
If your child is between six months and eight years old, he or she doesn’t need one regular flu vaccine but may need two doses of the flu shot. Children in this age bracket are more susceptible to experiencing complications from the flu and one single dose of the vaccine may not be enough to build their immunity for flu season. The CDC warns, “Children 2 years of age up to their 5th birthday are more likely than healthy older children to be taken to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of the flu.”
Children within this age bracket who are being vaccinated for the first time or who had only one flu shot last season should get two doses of the vaccine. The CDC recommends obtaining the second dose at least 28 days after the first dose has been given. The first dose primes the child’s immune system while the second dose provides immune protection for the season. Since this process takes longer and the flu shot doesn’t begin protecting against the illness until two weeks after it’s administered, take your child in early. Consider getting your child’s first flu shot as soon as the vaccines become available for the season.
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Can I Get A Vaccine If I Have Covid
Getting vaccinated usually means visiting a healthcare provider or pharmacy. If you have COVID-19, that could put other people at risk of catching it from you. So, although its technically fine to get a vaccine including the COVID-19 vaccine while you have COVID-19, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends waiting until youre no longer contagious.
Concerns About Side Effects
If the side effects following immunisation are unexpected, persistent, or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the central vaccine reporting service in Victoria on .
You can discuss how to report problems in other states or territories with your immunisation provider.
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Can You Get A Flu Shot While On Antibiotics
Getting your flu shot is one of the quickest and easiest ways to protect your health- and also the health of those you love. However, many patients wonder if they can get the flu shot at any time. For instance, can you get a flu shot while on antibiotics? The answer can be confusing. Well break it down in the article below.
Is It Safe To Get A Covid
COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant, or might become pregnant in the future. Pregnant and recently pregnant women are more likely to get severely ill with COVID-19 compared with non-pregnant people. Breastfeeding is rarely a safety concern with vaccines.
There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines impact fertility or are harmful to the mother or infant.
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Antibiotics Appear To Cut Flu Vaccine Effectiveness
You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4.0 International license.
A new study in healthy adults suggests that antibiotics may reduce flu vaccine effectiveness.
The depletion of gut bacteria by antibiotics appears to leave the immune system less able to respond to new challenges, such as exposure to previously unencountered germs or vaccines, says Bali Pulendran, professor of pathology and of microbiology and immunology at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the immune response in humansin this case, our response to vaccinationdirectly induced through the disturbance of our gut bacteria, he says.
How Do Vaccines Fight Infections
Vaccines help you build a defense against illnesses you could face down the road. We have vaccines against some illnesses caused by bacteria, as well as some caused by viruses.
When you get a vaccine, your body is introduced to harmless examples of bacteria or viruses. This introduction gives your body a heads-up about germs that could become a threat if you encounter them in the future. Your immune system takes note of these possible intruders, and then is ready to respond quickly if you are exposed to them later.
Once youre vaccinated, your immune system has boots on the ground all over your body on the surfaces in your mouth, nose, and eyes, inside your stomach and gut, and circulating in your bloodstream all ready to attack at the first sign of invasion.
The advance intel a vaccine offers is critical: With it, your immune system can stop an infection so fast, you wont ever know it happened.
Remember, though, that vaccines rely on your immune system to build a strong defense, so they work best if you take them while youre healthy.
Serious Illness May Affect The Vaccines Your Child Gets
Children with moderate or serious illnesswith or without fevermay need to wait until they are better to get some vaccines.
Your child may not receive some vaccines if he or she has:
- A chronic health condition
- A weakened immune system
- Had a severe allergic reaction to previous dose of a vaccine or an ingredient in a vaccine
If your child has a serious illness or medical condition, talk to your childs doctor or nurse. They can help to determine which vaccines your child can and cannot get at each visit and how to best protect your childs health.
Safety And Side Effects
Side effects associated with the vaccine are:
- runny or stuffy nose
- high temperature
- nose bleeds
- allergic reactions
Additional information about vaccine side effects, anaphylaxis and adverse reactions can be found here.
There is no evidence that healthy unvaccinated people can catch flu from the nasal flu spray .
It is known that vaccinated children shed the virus for a few days after vaccination . However, the vaccine virus is weakened, and so it is much less able to spread from person to person than flu viruses that circulate during the flu season, and it cannot grow inside the body. The amount of virus that children shed is normally below the levels needed to pass on infection to others. The virus does not survive for long outside the body.
It is therefore not necessary for children to be excluded from school during the period when the vaccine is being given. The only exception is the very small number of children who are extremely immunocompromised . These children are usually advised not to attend school anyway, because of the higher risk of being in contact with infections that circulate in schools.
The nasal flu spray should not be given to anyone who is severely immunodeficient due to a medical condition or treatment with an immunosuppressive therapy such as:
This is because the weakened viruses in the vaccine could replicate too much and cause infection.
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